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ruled from 27 B.C. - 180 A.D.; restored power to the Senate; made many helpful reforms to Rome


ruled from 14 - 37 A.D.; very well educated; well loved by his soldiers; capable but unpopular ruler


ruled form 37 - 41 A.D.; "Little Boots"; promised low taxes; had himself declared a God


ruled from 41 - 54 A.D.; weakened by polio; mother called him "unfinished monster"; initiated program of construction and reform; people of Rome loved him


ruled from 54 - 68 A.D.; real name was Lucius; suspected plots against him; performed as public poet; accused of starting fire of Rome


ruled from 69 - 79 A.D.; man of sense, ability, and honor; firm will; scorned laziness; taxed everything and denounced as miserly


ruled from 79 - 81 A.D.; government was model of wisdom and honor; greatest fault was uncontrollable generosity; completed Colosseum


ruled from 81 - 96 A.D.; least popular ruler of Flavian era; insisted on being called Lord and Master; ineffective military leader


ruled from 96 - 98 A.D.; chosen by Senate; restored power to Senate, adopted frugal budget, distributed land, annulled many taxes


ruled from 98 - 117 A.D.; increased empire to greatest size; first non-Italian emperor (Spaniard); popular with army; well liked by senators


ruled from 117 - 138 A.D.; chose to establish defensible borders; spent great deal of time traveling in provinces; created Permanent Edict; revolt by Jews in Judea during his reign

Antonius Pius

ruled from 138 - 161 A.D.; wealthy senator from Gaul; maintained excellent relations with Senate; did non mount any military campaigns

Marcus Aurelius

ruled from 161 - 180 A.D.; stoic philosopher; wrote "Meditations"; waged wars in Germany, Dacia, and Parthia; plague swept across Rome during his rule


Roman senator who published beautifully written speeches


Roman poet who wrote "Metamorphoses"; linked Rome to Greece through tales of Greek and roman gods


Roman poet who wrote "Odes" about shortness of life and rewards of companionship


Roman poet who wrote the "Aeneid" which was an epic poem that depicted Rome's past as a heroic age


Roman historian who wrote monumental history of Rome, glorified early Romans, and sought to raise patriotism and traditional values


Roman historian who condemned tyranny of Augustus and Julio-Claudian emperors; wrote "Germania"

Pax Romana

period of "Roman Peace" that lasted from 27 B.C. to 180 A.D.


had the power of veto


First Citizen; cast first vote in Senate


could remove unworthy men from the Senate


supreme military commander


governor of all Roman provinces

Permanent Edict

modernization of all law codes created by Hadrian


written by Marcus Aurelius on his military campaign and express his determination to rule well

Ius Civile

system of civil law in Roman society that applied to all Roman citizens

Ius Gentium

"law of nations" in Roman society that was used for international law and dealt with non-citizens


Roman stadium used for gladiator fights that held 50,000 people

Circus Maximus

Roman stadium that had 250,000 seats and was used for chariot races

Appian Way

road built in 4th century B.C. that connected Rome and southern Italy


famous dome that was rebuilt by Hadrian in 128 A.D.


bridge like structures that brought fresh water to cities

Lingua Franca

term used in reference to the common language


imperial title given in honor of Octavian

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