Chapter 9: Joints
Terms in this set (64)
The science of joint structure, function, and dysfunction is called
The study of musculoskeletal movement is
bony joint (Synostosis)
an immobile joint formed when the gap between two bones ossifies and they become, in effect, a single bone. Forms from either cartilaginous joints ex: fusion of left and right side of frontal bone, closure of epiphyseal plate
immobile or only slightly mobile fibrous joints that closely bind the bones of the skull to each other; they occur nowhere else
a point at which adjacent bones are bound by collagen fibers that emerge from one bone, cross the space between them, and penetrate into the other
sutures, gomphoses, syndesmoses
What are the three types of fibrous joints?
appear as wavy lines along which the adjoining bones firmly interlock with each other by their serrated margins, like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle.ex:coronal, sagittal, and lambdoid sutures that border the parietal bones.
Lap (squamous) suture
occur where two bones have overlapping beveled edges, like a miter joint in carpentry. ex: squamous suture between temporal and parietal bones
plane (butt) suture
where two bones have straight nonoverlapping edges. his type of joint is represented by the intermaxillary suture in the roof of the mouth
the attachment of a tooth to its socket is classified as a joint called a
collagen fibers extended from bone matrix of jaw into the dental tissue; allow slight motion to occur while chewing
a fibrous joint at which two bones are bound by relatively long collagenous fibers. The separation between the bones and length of the fibers give these joints more mobility than a suture or gomphosis has.
ex: interosseous membrane of radius, ula; distal tibia/fibula attachment
A fibrous membrane that connects the radius to the ulna and the tibia to the fibula along most of the shaft of each bone.
Synchondroses and symphyses.
Two types of cartilage joints
is a joint in which the bones are bound by hyaline cartilage. An example is the temporary joint between the epiphysis and diaphysis of a long bone in a child, formed by the cartilage of the epiphyseal plate. Another is the attachment of the first rib to the sternum by a hyaline costal cartilage. sternum attachment
A joint in which two bones are held together by fibrocartilage; for example, between bodies of the vertebrae and between the right and left pubic bones.
A point where two bones are separated by a narrow, encapsulated space filled with lubricating synovial fluid; most such joints are relatively mobile. Also called diarthrosis.
-structurally complicated leads to dysfunction (pain and immobility )
ex: knee, knuckle, wrist
A thin layer of hyaline cartilage covering the articular surface of a bone at a synovial joint, serving to reduce friction and ease joint movement
A lubricating fluid(rich in albumin and hyaluronic acid) similar to egg white in consistency, found in the synovial joint cavities and bursae.
---nourishes the articular cartilages, removes their wastes, and makes movements at synovial joints almost friction-free.
cellular layer of fibroblast-like cells that secrete synovial fluid; contains macrophages to remove joint debris
if pad crosses entire joint capsule
pads extend into joint, but don't cross
-knee medical and lateral
A tough collagenous band or cord associated with a muscle, usually attaching it to a bone and transferring muscular tension to it.- attaches muscles to bones!
A cord or band of tough collagenous tissue binding one organ to another, especially one bone to another, and serving to hold organs in place; for example, the cruciate ligaments of the knee, broad ligament of the uterus, and falciform ligament of the liver.
-bone to bone!
A sac filled with synovial fluid at a synovial joint, serving to facilitate muscle or joint action.
-found between muscles, where tendon passes bone or between bone and skin. -Cushions/modifies motion/eases tendon slide
elongated bursa that wrap tendons. Especially in hand and foot
range of motion
degrees through which joint can move (One aspect of joint performance and physical assessment of a patient is a joint's flexibility or)
axis of rotation
stationary line passing through the bone in direction perpendicular to the plane of movement
A joint movement that, in most cases, decreases the angle between two bones (usually in sagittal plane)
-common in hinge joints
ex:shoulder/hip flexion 180 to 80 takes place in diarthosis usually
Movement of a joint that increases the angle between articulating bones
-straightening a joint usually returns it back to 0 point- usually diarthosis
A joint movement that increases the angle between two bones beyond 180°-beyond the zero point
ex: scratching back
movement in frontal plane,movement of a body part away from the midline of the plane
Movement of a body part toward the median plane, such as bringing the feet together from a spread-legged position.- also in frontal plane
when you stand with your ankles crossed, cross your fingers, or hyperadduct the shoulder to stand with your elbows straight and your hands clasped below your waist
A joint movement that raises a body part, as in hunching the shoulders or closing the mouth. raises vertical in front plane
movement that lowers a body part on the frontal plane
anterior movement of body part in the traverse plane
posterior movement of a body part in the traverse plane
A joint movement in which one end of an appendage remains relatively stationary and the other end is moved in a circle.
is a movement in which a bone spins on its longitudinal axis.
A movement of the ankle that reduces the joint angle and raises the toes. fi
medial internal rotation
f you stand with bent elbow and move your forearm to place your palm against your abdomen, your humerus spins in a motion called
-Toward the midline of an organ or median plane of the body. Compare lateral.
lateral external rotation
If you make the opposite motion, so the forearm points away from the body, your humerus exhibits
-Away from the midline of an organ or median plane of the body; toward the side.
A rotational movement of the forearm that turns the palm so that it faces upward or forward.
A rotational movement of the forearm that turns the palm downward or posteriorly. -of the forearm is a movement that turns the palm to face anteriorly or upward; in anatomical position, the forearm is supinated and the radius is parallel to the ulna.
s tilting the head or trunk to the right or left of the midline
Twisting at the waist or turning of the head is called
(movement to the left or right of the zero position)
(movement back to the median, zero position)
tilts the hand toward the little finger,
tilts it toward the thumb
flexion of thumb
of the thumb is bending the joints so the tip of the thumb is directed toward the palm
moves the thumb away from the plane of the hand so it points anteriorly, as you would do if you were about to wrap your hand around a tool handle
if you move your thumb away from the index finger so they form a 90° angle (but both are on the plane of the table), the thumb movement is called
A movement of the ankle that reduces the joint angle and raises the toes.
is movement of the foot so the toes point downward, as in pressing the gas pedal of a car or standing on tiptoes. This motion also produces the toe-off in each step you take, as the heel of the foot behind you lifts off the ground.
is a foot movement that tips the soles medially, somewhat facing each other,
is a movement that tips the soles laterally, away from each other (
ball and socket joints
these are the shoulder and hip joints—the only multiaxial joints in the body. In both cases, one bone (the humerus or femur) has a smooth hemispherical head that fits into a cuplike socket on the other (the glenoid cavity of the scapula or the acetabulum of the hip bone).
usually biaxial joints.
carpal or tarsal joints
-limited but complicated motion
-flat to concave/convex surfaces
monoaxial joints, move freely in one direction, elbow, interphalange knee -one concave surface that a faces a convex surface,
monoaxial joints, atlantoaxial radiounlar -bone spins on longitudinal axis
-radiocarpal or metacarpophalangeal
-oval convex surface on one bone that fits into a complimentary shaped depression on the other
trapeziometacarpal joint allows opposable thumb
-both surfaces are saddle shaped