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Visualizing Geology Chapter 8

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peat
A biogenic sediment formed from accumulation and compaction of plant remains
coal
A combustible rock from the lithification of plant-rich sediments
alluvial fan
A fan-shaped deposit of sediments dropped by a river or stream flowing out of a mountain range.
delta
a triangular area of land formed from deposits at the mouth of a river
playas
A lake where water is evaporated part of the year and drys up leaving salt
till
unstratified soil deposited by a glacier
eolian sediment
Sediment that is carried and deposited by the wind.
estuary
the area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean
turbidity current
a downslope movement of dense, sediment-laden water created when sand and mud on the continental shelf and slope are dislodged and thrown into suspension
calcareous ooze
Ooze composed of mostly the hard remains of organisms containing calcium carbonate
siliceous ooze
biogenous sediment composed of the silica based shells of single-celled animals and algae
sedimentary facies
One may be distiguished from the other by differences in grain size, grain shape, stratification, colour, chemical composition, depositional structure and/or fossils.
rift valleys
A linear, fault-bounded valley along a divergent plate boundary or spreading center
accretionary wedges
Wedge shaped accumulations of volcanicclastic sediment scraped of the subduction plate in thick slabs, seperated by thrust faults, which pile up like a stack of playing cardson the overriding plate
opiolites
fragments of lithosphere incorporated into the melange of accretionary wedges
clastic sediment
Sediment formed from fragmented rock and mineral debris produced by weathering and erosion.
chemical sediment
The dissolved product of weathering precipitated from water (usually seawater) by chemical reactions and formed at or near its place of deposition.
biogenic sediment
Sediment that is composed primarily of plant and animal remains, or precipitates as a result of biologic processes.
bedding surfaces
The top or bottom surface of a rock stratum or bed.
lithification
The process that converts sediments into solid rock by compaction or cementation.
compaction
The process by which sediments are pressed together under their own weight.
conner
The coolest kid on the planet!
cementation
The process in which minerals precipitate into pore spaces between sediment grains and bind sediments together to form rock.
recrystalization
heat and pressure break the bonds that join atoms in minerals and they join together differently as new bonds
diagnesis
any chemical or physical change that happens in a sedimentary environment subsequent to the original deposition of sediment.
shale
A fine-grained clastic rock composed of silt plus a significant component of clay, which causes it to break readily along bedding planes.