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Chapter 11: Personality

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personality
sm individual's unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and across situations
psychodynamic theories
personality theories contending that behavior results from psychological forces that interact within the individual, often outside consciousness awareness
unconscious
in Freud's theory, all the ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are not and normally cannot become aware
psychoanalysis
the theory of personality Freud developed as well as the form of therapy he invented
Id
in Freud's theory of personality, the collection of unconscious urges and desires that continually seek expression
pleasure principle
according to Freud, the way in which the id seeks immediate gratification of an instinct
ego
Freud's term for the part of the personality that mediates between environmental demands (reality), conscience (superego), and instinctual needs (id); now often used as a synonym for "self"
reality principle
according to Freud, the way in which the ego seeks to satisfy intinctual demands safely and effectively in the real world
superego
according to Freud, the social and parental standards the individual has internalized; the conscience and the ago ideal
ego ideal
the part of the superego that consists of standards of what one would like to be
defense mechanisms
self-deceptive techniques for reducing anxiety and guilt, including denial, repression, projection, identification, regression, intellectualization, reaction formation, displacement, and sublimination
denial
refusal to acknowledge a painful or threatening reality
repression
excluding uncomfortable thoughts, feelings, and desires from consciousness
projection
attributing one's own repressed motives, feelings, or wishes to others
identification
taking on the characteristics of someone else to avoid feeling imcompetent
regression
reverting to childlike behavior and defenses
intellectualization
thinking abstractly about stressful problems as a way of detaching oneself from them
reaction formation
expression of exaggerated ideas and emotions that are the opposite of one's repressed beliefs or feelings
displacement
shifting repressed motives and emotions from an original object to a substitute object
sublimination
redirecting repressed motives and feelings into more socially acceptable channels
libido
according to Freud, the energy generated by the sexual instinct
fixation
according to Freud, a partial or complete halt at some point in the individual's psychosexual development
oral stage
first stage in Freud's theory of personality development, in which the infant's erotic feelings center on the mouth, lips, and tongue
anal stage
second stage in Freud's theory of personality development, in which a child's erotic feeling center on the anus and on the elimination
phallic stage
third stage in Freud's theory of personality development, in which erotic feelings center on the genitals
oedipus complex and Electra complex
according to Freud, a child's sexual attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and jealousy toward the parent of the same sex; generally occurs in the phallic stage
latency period
in Freud's theory of personality, a period in which the child appears to have no interest in the other sex; occurs afterr the phallic stage
genital stage
in Freud's theory of personality development, the final stage of normal adult sexual development, which is udually maked by mature sexuality
personal unconscious
in Jung's theory of personality, one of the two levels of the unconscious; it contains the individual's repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undeveloped ideas
collective unconscious
in Jung's theory of personality, the level of the unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of a species
archetypes
in Jung's theory of personality, thought forms common to all human beings, stored in the collective unconscious
persona
according to Jung, our public self, the mask we put on to represent outselves to others
anima
according to Jung, the female archetype as it is expressed in the male personality
animus
according to Jung, the male archetype as it is expressed in the female personality
extrovert
according to Jung, a person who usually focuses on social like and the external world instead of on his or her internal experience
introvert
according to Jung, a person who usually focuses on social life and the external world instead of on his or her internal experience
rational individuals
according to Jung, people who regulate their actions by the psychological functions of thinking and feeling
irrational individuals
according the Jung, people who base their actions on perceptions, either through the senses or through the unconscious processes
compensation
according to Adler, the person's effort to overcome imagined or real personal weaknesses
inferiority complex
in Adler's theory, the fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that results in emotional and sical paralysis
anxiety
in Horney's theory, the individual's reaction to the real or imagined threats
neurotic trends
Horney's term for irrational strategies for coping with emotional problems and minimizing anxiety
humanistic personality theory
any personality theory that asserts that fundamental goodness of people and their striving toward higher levels of functioning
actualizing tendency
according to Rogers, the drive of every organism to fulfill its biological potential and become what it is inherently capable of becoming
self-actualizing tendency
according to Rogers, the drive of humsn beings to fulfill their self-concepts, or the images they have of themselves
fully functioning person
according to Rogers, an individual whose self-concept closely resembles his or her inborn capacities or potentials
unconditional positive regard
in Roger's theory, the full acceptance and love of another person regardless of our behavior
conditional positive regard
in Roger's theory, acceptance and love that are dependent on behaving in certain ways and fulfilling certain conditions
personality traits
dimensions or characteristics on or in which people differ in distinctive ways
factor analysis
a statistical technique that identifies groups of related objects; used by Cattell to identify trait clusters
Big Five
five traits or basic dimensions currently thought to be of central importance in describing personality
congnitive- social learning theories
personality theories that view behavior as the product of the interaction of cognitions, learning and past experiences, and the immediate environment
expectancies
in Bandura's view, what a person anticipates in a situation or as a result of behaving in certain ways
performance standards
in Bandura's theory, standards that people develop to rate the adequency of their own behavior in a variety of situations
self-efficacy
according to Bandura, the expectancy that one's efforts will be successful
locus of control
according to Rotter, an expectancy about whether reinforcment is under internal or external control
objective tests
personality tests that are administered and scored in a standard way
sixteen personality factor questionnaire
objective personality test created by Cattell that provides scored on the 16 traits he identified
NEO-PI-R
an objective personality test desgined to assess the Big Five personality traits
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)
the most widely used objective personality test, originally intended for psychiatric diagnosis
projective tests
personality tests, such as the Rorschach inlblot test, consisting of ambiguous or unstructured material
Rorchach test
a projective test composed of ambiguous inkblots; the way people interpret the blots is thoughts to reveal aspects of their personality
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test composed of ambiguous pictures about which a person is asked to write a complete story