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sm individual's unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and across situations

psychodynamic theories

personality theories contending that behavior results from psychological forces that interact within the individual, often outside consciousness awareness


in Freud's theory, all the ideas, thoughts, and feelings of which we are not and normally cannot become aware


the theory of personality Freud developed as well as the form of therapy he invented


in Freud's theory of personality, the collection of unconscious urges and desires that continually seek expression

pleasure principle

according to Freud, the way in which the id seeks immediate gratification of an instinct


Freud's term for the part of the personality that mediates between environmental demands (reality), conscience (superego), and instinctual needs (id); now often used as a synonym for "self"

reality principle

according to Freud, the way in which the ego seeks to satisfy intinctual demands safely and effectively in the real world


according to Freud, the social and parental standards the individual has internalized; the conscience and the ago ideal

ego ideal

the part of the superego that consists of standards of what one would like to be

defense mechanisms

self-deceptive techniques for reducing anxiety and guilt, including denial, repression, projection, identification, regression, intellectualization, reaction formation, displacement, and sublimination


refusal to acknowledge a painful or threatening reality


excluding uncomfortable thoughts, feelings, and desires from consciousness


attributing one's own repressed motives, feelings, or wishes to others


taking on the characteristics of someone else to avoid feeling imcompetent


reverting to childlike behavior and defenses


thinking abstractly about stressful problems as a way of detaching oneself from them

reaction formation

expression of exaggerated ideas and emotions that are the opposite of one's repressed beliefs or feelings


shifting repressed motives and emotions from an original object to a substitute object


redirecting repressed motives and feelings into more socially acceptable channels


according to Freud, the energy generated by the sexual instinct


according to Freud, a partial or complete halt at some point in the individual's psychosexual development

oral stage

first stage in Freud's theory of personality development, in which the infant's erotic feelings center on the mouth, lips, and tongue

anal stage

second stage in Freud's theory of personality development, in which a child's erotic feeling center on the anus and on the elimination

phallic stage

third stage in Freud's theory of personality development, in which erotic feelings center on the genitals

oedipus complex and Electra complex

according to Freud, a child's sexual attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and jealousy toward the parent of the same sex; generally occurs in the phallic stage

latency period

in Freud's theory of personality, a period in which the child appears to have no interest in the other sex; occurs afterr the phallic stage

genital stage

in Freud's theory of personality development, the final stage of normal adult sexual development, which is udually maked by mature sexuality

personal unconscious

in Jung's theory of personality, one of the two levels of the unconscious; it contains the individual's repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undeveloped ideas

collective unconscious

in Jung's theory of personality, the level of the unconscious that is inherited and common to all members of a species


in Jung's theory of personality, thought forms common to all human beings, stored in the collective unconscious


according to Jung, our public self, the mask we put on to represent outselves to others


according to Jung, the female archetype as it is expressed in the male personality


according to Jung, the male archetype as it is expressed in the female personality


according to Jung, a person who usually focuses on social like and the external world instead of on his or her internal experience


according to Jung, a person who usually focuses on social life and the external world instead of on his or her internal experience

rational individuals

according to Jung, people who regulate their actions by the psychological functions of thinking and feeling

irrational individuals

according the Jung, people who base their actions on perceptions, either through the senses or through the unconscious processes


according to Adler, the person's effort to overcome imagined or real personal weaknesses

inferiority complex

in Adler's theory, the fixation on feelings of personal inferiority that results in emotional and sical paralysis


in Horney's theory, the individual's reaction to the real or imagined threats

neurotic trends

Horney's term for irrational strategies for coping with emotional problems and minimizing anxiety

humanistic personality theory

any personality theory that asserts that fundamental goodness of people and their striving toward higher levels of functioning

actualizing tendency

according to Rogers, the drive of every organism to fulfill its biological potential and become what it is inherently capable of becoming

self-actualizing tendency

according to Rogers, the drive of humsn beings to fulfill their self-concepts, or the images they have of themselves

fully functioning person

according to Rogers, an individual whose self-concept closely resembles his or her inborn capacities or potentials

unconditional positive regard

in Roger's theory, the full acceptance and love of another person regardless of our behavior

conditional positive regard

in Roger's theory, acceptance and love that are dependent on behaving in certain ways and fulfilling certain conditions

personality traits

dimensions or characteristics on or in which people differ in distinctive ways

factor analysis

a statistical technique that identifies groups of related objects; used by Cattell to identify trait clusters

Big Five

five traits or basic dimensions currently thought to be of central importance in describing personality

congnitive- social learning theories

personality theories that view behavior as the product of the interaction of cognitions, learning and past experiences, and the immediate environment


in Bandura's view, what a person anticipates in a situation or as a result of behaving in certain ways

performance standards

in Bandura's theory, standards that people develop to rate the adequency of their own behavior in a variety of situations


according to Bandura, the expectancy that one's efforts will be successful

locus of control

according to Rotter, an expectancy about whether reinforcment is under internal or external control

objective tests

personality tests that are administered and scored in a standard way

sixteen personality factor questionnaire

objective personality test created by Cattell that provides scored on the 16 traits he identified


an objective personality test desgined to assess the Big Five personality traits

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)

the most widely used objective personality test, originally intended for psychiatric diagnosis

projective tests

personality tests, such as the Rorschach inlblot test, consisting of ambiguous or unstructured material

Rorchach test

a projective test composed of ambiguous inkblots; the way people interpret the blots is thoughts to reveal aspects of their personality

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

a projective test composed of ambiguous pictures about which a person is asked to write a complete story

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