DNA, RNA, and Proteinsynthesis
Terms in this set (43)
Where is DNA located in a cell?
The monomers of DNA are called
Nucleotides have 3 subunits
sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base
What part of DNA is read as the "genetic code"
List the 4 nitrogen bases of DNA.
adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
What does DNA stand for?
What two scientists are known to have described the structure of DNA
Watson and Crick
What process involves the formation of new DNA strands?
Where does this occur?
Strands of DNA are not identical, they are...
Nitrogen bases in a DNA molecule are held together by what bonds?
The backbone of DNA consists of what?
sugar molecules and phosphate ions
How are DNA strands separated to allow for replication to take place?
they are unzipped by DNA helicase.
Free _____ in the nucleus bond to the single strands by base pairing?
What is transcription?
Why is transcription necessary?
Because DNA cannot leave the nucleus, so mRNA has to carry DNA's "message" to the ribosomes.
What is codon?
3 nucleotide chain on mRNA.
What is an anticodon?
3 nucleotide chain on tRNA.
List 3 differences between RNA and DNA.
1. Single strand instead of double.
2. Uracil instead of Thymine.
3. Ribose instead of deoxyribose.
Where does protein synthesis take place in a cell?
What does RNA stand for?
Describe the process of translation.
mRNA ~~> amino acids by using tRNA and rRNA.
How many amino acids are there?
What is the function of tRNA in protein synthesis?
tRNA's anticodons match w/ mRNA's codons to make specific amino acids.
tRNA contains a 3 base sequence called a(n) _____, which is complimentary to a(n) _____.
Heat-killed bacteria transfer their disease-causing ability to harmless live cells through the process called _____.
What type of bacteria was used in the study of transformation?
What scientist conducted the experiment of transformation in mice?
Describe Avery's contribution to the study of DNA.
Who was the frist to look at x-ray diffraction images of DNA?
Who developed the base pairing rules?
What is a bacteriophage?
a bacteria-eating virus.
What scientists studied bacteriophages? Explain their research.
The monomers of a protein are called what?
Explain why proteins are called polypeptides.
Because amino acids are bonded by peptide bonds.
How many codons are there? stop codons? start codons?
64, 3, 1.
Give an example of a codon, stop codon, and start codon.
AAA, UAA, AUG.
Where are proteins made in a cell?
Explain why mRNA is important in protein synthesis.
Because it takes DNA's code to the tRNA and ribosomes to be made into proteins.
What type of reaction is necessary in creating a nucleotide?
What is the function of DNA helicase?
Unzips the DNA strand to be replicated.
What is the function of RNA polymerase?
Unzips the DNA strand to attach to RNA.
Why is DNA replication necessary?