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Hierarchy of Organization

1. Organism
2. Population
3. Community
4. Ecosystems
5. Biosphere

Group of species; All organisms of the same species in one area


There are a range of ages in the population;There are lists of characteristics that apply to populations but do not apply to an ________.


Different populations


Descent with modification occurring over generatons


An _______ doesn't evolve, but ______ do.

Individual; populations

Theory of Evolution

is not a theory whether evolution occurred it addresses how and why evolution occurs.

The Theory of Evolution is _______ _______.

Natural Selection

Explain Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics

What one does to change oneself in their lifetime can be passed on to their descendants.

Wrote a popular book on Evolution and was associated with Natural Selection


Went around the world to shoot and capture animals and birds to ship to Europe to study. Joined Darwin to publish his book.


In every population there is ______ variation.


The capacity for ______ exceeds the capacity of the environment.


done deliberately by humans and selection which would survive and reproduce. Humans choose which organisms will survive and reproduce. Ex. Animal and plant breeding.

Artificial Selection

The environment determines what survives and reproduces.

Natural Selection

The result of Natural Selection is _____.


Any remnant of past life of distant or very distant past. Can be bones, impressions, teeth, insects, leaf impressions, petrified wood, footprints.


formed ultimately from living things in the past. Ex. Oil, coal

fossil fuels

the process by which a dead body or part becomes a fossil.


_____body parts are more likely to fossilize than ______ parts/things. Although ____ parts can fossilize.

Hard; softer; soft

For an organism to become a fossil is very _____.


Fossils are less likely found:

in mountain sides and rain forests

To determine the age of a fossil you can look at the level in which its buried in ______ ___.

sedimentary rock

fine particles on the bottom of the floor under water.


Measures radioactive decay to indicate how old a fossil is.


A method of dating fossils that is only valid for 50-60 thousand years

Carbon Dating

Similarities in organisms resulting from common ancestry showing how organisms evolve.


Homology can be more evident in ______ ______.

embryonic development

Homology can also be found at the ________ level by looking at ________ ____ _____ sequence. (DNA)

molecular; amino acid protein

Convergent evolution; similarities not because of common ancestry but because very different organisms of different species look alike because of their environment.


Homoplasy shows evolution through _____ _____ by living a similar way in a similar environment.

natural selection

When organisms become alike in everything even though they are not related.

Convergent evolution

Simply looking at how organisms are distributed on a global scale


Explain continental drift.

Continents are actually moving. Continents have a cycle of coming together and then separating. This explains why marsupials are located in the continents they inhabit. They originated in North America and then spread to South America and Australia before the continents split. The only marsupial left in North America is the opossum.

A sequence of DNA that controls a certain trait.


variant forms of a gene


_______ have allele frequency.


Evolution occurs in a population when _____ _____ change from one generation to the next.

Allele frequencies

a change in the DNA sequence and can create new alleles. This causes a change in allele frequency


______ are random and cannot be predicated. Only the rate can be predicted.


Mutations can be _____, ____ or ______.

beneficial, lethal, or have no effect on survival.

Natural Selection chooses which ____ is successful based on the environment.


There is limited movement in sexual reproduction in __________ but genes will move from one population to another and this causes changes in _____ ________.

populations; allele frequencies

is a force in evolution when organisms migrate from one population to another. This can also change allele frequencies.

gene flow

Chance events that cause allele frequencies to fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next in small populations.

Genetic Drift

Genetic Drift tends to reduce _____ _______.

genetic variation

The ____ the population the less likely for genetic drift for elimination of an individual.


When populations reduce largely; drastically affect the population and decreases the genetic variability.

genetic bottleneck

An example of two things that reduce genetic variability

humans are the biggest cause of reducing population and inbreeding

The formation of colonies; which only bring the alleles they have; starting a brand new population

founder effect

_____ and _______ are the key to the evolution game.

Survival and Reproduction

a form of natural selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates

sexual selection

Differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species. For example, humans are slightly dimorphic for body size, with males being taller, on average, than females of the same population.

sexual dimorphism


each structure has a function and reason for being, which is evident from the design in nature

The biological species concept states that two populations are different species if they do not _________ under natural conditions.


______ ______ makes interbreeding unlikely.

Reproductive isolation

The biological species concept and reproductive isolation only apply to ______ _______ organisms.

sexual reproducing

Mechanisms that restrict two different species from mating:

biochemical and physically

If two different species do mat, their offspring is called a _____. These organisms are ____.


If 2 different species produce a fertile offspring than they are _____________ but generally unadvantaged.

their own species

New species that have evolved through time


Speciation always occurs ___________ - meaning only splits in 2 at one time.


major change in a species


allele evolution is also called


a single species evolving and changing through time; may appear different but still the same species; not speciation


branching that leads to two different descendants/species




The pace of evolution is called _____ ______ saying that the change is very gradual.

evolutionary gradualism

not much change occurs but when it does it is a rapid and abrupt change

punctuated equilibrium

complexity argues that:

an organism cannot evolve things to be complex from simple.

irreductable complexity argues:

An organism cannot have evolved from a simpler organism because it cannot function any simpler than it is.

Relates to the changes in timing or pace of development; one way we can see rapid evolutionary change concretely.


how rapid a body part develops or grows; often determined by a single gene

allometric growth

Changes in _________ ________ allows some parts to grow slow and some parts fast.allometric growth

allometric growth

Adults still having juvenile traits or characteristics; determined by natural selection through turning on that timing gene


___ ___normal rate of extinction

background rate

individual species or population dies out


large number of extinction occurs in short amount of time dealing with many different species

mass extinction

time of extinction dinosaur (__-__) large decline
(__-___) mass extinction


mass extinction can lead to ___ ___

adaptive radiation

___ a large amount of speciation leading to many new species from a common ancestor

adaptive radiation

a ____ or ___ could cause adaptive radiation

new habitat
speciation increased after dinosaurs became extinct

a third type of adaptive radiation is when __

a new form of a way of doing things changes

___ comes from common ancestor and evolves into man different species. Had to adapt to a new environment

adaptive radiation

three reasons for adaptive radiation

1. brand new location
2. survivors adapt
3. new way of doing things

___ usually follows adaptive radiation

mass extinction

____ is the identification, naming, and classification of species


reconstructing evolutionary history is part of the science of ___


the study of the diversity and relationships of organisms, both past and present


Linnaeus's system assigns to each species a two-part latinized name, or ___


the first part of a binomial is the ___ to which the species belongs


the second part of a binomial refers to one particular ____ (or ____) within the genus

species (specific epithet)

___ is always capitalized


a subspecies adds a third name ____


when a species is described it has gone through a ___ and ___


Hierarchical classification

domain kingdom phylum class order family genus species

__- general term used for classification it can be used for any group


plural of taxon


why do classification scheme differ?

-new things are discovered; change over time
- changes in order to more show relationships which causes changes in textbooks and grouping
-may change because scientist differ in the relationships therefore classification

the classification system tries to show ____ relationships


ever since Darwin, systematics has had a goal beyond simple organization: to have classification reflect ___, which is the evolutionary history of a species


As a systematist classifies species into groups subordinate to other groups in the taxonomic hierarchy, the final product takes on the branching pattern of a ____ or ___

phylogenetic tree

A ___ consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants- a distinctive branch in the tree of life


branching points on cladogram are called


___- cannot figure out how they are related

unresolved nodes

___- goal is to make all the descendants of a common ancestor (one group contains all descendants of a common ancestor)


___ focuses on the evolutionary innovations that define the branch points in evolution


cladistics requires a comparison between a so-called ___ and ___.


a ____ character is a homology present in all the organisms being compared and so must also have been present in the common ancestor.


The ___ character are the evolutionary innovations that define the sequence of branch points (numbered) in the phylogeny of the in-group.


____- even though homologous homologous do not always distinguish classification it can be derived characteristic or primitive characteristic

shared primitive characteristics

shared primitive characteristics has ___

at least one characteristic in common

___- is unique to a monophyletic taxon
- it can be used for specific classification

shared derived characteristics

___ is not useful in classification


____ group should have one shared derived characteristic


viruses are NOT ___


agent of disease


viruses are examples of ___ because they are NOT cells

infectious particles

A virus is ___ in having genes and a highly organized structure, but it differs from a ____ in not being mad of cells and not being able to reproduce on its own.

living organism

viruses are hard to see and have to use ___

scanning electron microscopes

all viruses have at least 2 pars in common:
1. ___
2.a nucleic acid at the core making it either a
a. b. (can't be both)

DNA viruses
RNA viruses

other things can be present in viruses such as

glycoprotein (carb attached)

A virus has to get to a ___ aka

host cell

The ____ ___ must be put into the cell (DNA/RNA)

nucleic acid

viruses only reproduce while __

in cell

Viruses find a way to make cell make more DNA by ____

replicating viral DNA codes

The __ and ___ of viruses on the cell often cause damage/illness


__ are chemicals that affect bacteria


__ are not typically by antibiotics


because viruses are not typically by antibiotics it makes it difficult to ____

treat but vaccination prevent

viruses cat evolve from cells because ___

they need cells to reproduce

prokaryotes are the ___ and ___


___- a characteristic meaning no nucleus


archaeans are more closely related to ___ than ___


___ are cells so they have a __ __ varying in shapes, have ___, ___

cell membrane

Prokaryotes DNA is not inside a nucleus it is inside a ____ having a single loop of ___ (often called___)

single molecule
bacterial chromosome

___ do not have ribosomes


where are the proteins made


Prokaryotes have other things like ___, ___, or ____ to control movement

a cell wall

Prokaryotes have __ effect on water movement


__- a small ring of DNA separate from the chromosome(s).


__ have to survive and reproduce


bacteria divide into two by ____

binary fission

Bacteria daughter cells have to have ____ of DNA by ___

both sets

Bacteria do not have __ but can exchange DNA

sexual reproduction

Bacteria exchange DNA by

forming a tube which they swap DNA or plasmids

Archaeans are everywhere ___ is

liquid (water)

__ can live where bacteria can't


___ like habitats that are extreme and harsh to other organism


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