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154 terms

Biology 102 Test 1

STUDY
PLAY
Hierarchy of Organization
1. Organism
2. Population
3. Community
4. Ecosystems
5. Biosphere
Group of species; All organisms of the same species in one area
Population
There are a range of ages in the population;There are lists of characteristics that apply to populations but do not apply to an ________.
individual
Different populations
Community
Descent with modification occurring over generatons
evolution
An _______ doesn't evolve, but ______ do.
Individual; populations
Theory of Evolution
is not a theory whether evolution occurred it addresses how and why evolution occurs.
The Theory of Evolution is _______ _______.
Natural Selection
Explain Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
What one does to change oneself in their lifetime can be passed on to their descendants.
Wrote a popular book on Evolution and was associated with Natural Selection
Darwin
Went around the world to shoot and capture animals and birds to ship to Europe to study. Joined Darwin to publish his book.
Wallace
In every population there is ______ variation.
genetic
The capacity for ______ exceeds the capacity of the environment.
reproduction
done deliberately by humans and selection which would survive and reproduce. Humans choose which organisms will survive and reproduce. Ex. Animal and plant breeding.
Artificial Selection
The environment determines what survives and reproduces.
Natural Selection
The result of Natural Selection is _____.
Adaptation
Any remnant of past life of distant or very distant past. Can be bones, impressions, teeth, insects, leaf impressions, petrified wood, footprints.
Fossil
formed ultimately from living things in the past. Ex. Oil, coal
fossil fuels
the process by which a dead body or part becomes a fossil.
fossilization
_____body parts are more likely to fossilize than ______ parts/things. Although ____ parts can fossilize.
Hard; softer; soft
For an organism to become a fossil is very _____.
unusual
Fossils are less likely found:
in mountain sides and rain forests
To determine the age of a fossil you can look at the level in which its buried in ______ ___.
sedimentary rock
fine particles on the bottom of the floor under water.
sediment
Measures radioactive decay to indicate how old a fossil is.
radioisotopes
A method of dating fossils that is only valid for 50-60 thousand years
Carbon Dating
Similarities in organisms resulting from common ancestry showing how organisms evolve.
homology
Homology can be more evident in ______ ______.
embryonic development
Homology can also be found at the ________ level by looking at ________ ____ _____ sequence. (DNA)
molecular; amino acid protein
Convergent evolution; similarities not because of common ancestry but because very different organisms of different species look alike because of their environment.
Homoplasy
Homoplasy shows evolution through _____ _____ by living a similar way in a similar environment.
natural selection
When organisms become alike in everything even though they are not related.
Convergent evolution
Simply looking at how organisms are distributed on a global scale
biogeography
Explain continental drift.
Continents are actually moving. Continents have a cycle of coming together and then separating. This explains why marsupials are located in the continents they inhabit. They originated in North America and then spread to South America and Australia before the continents split. The only marsupial left in North America is the opossum.
A sequence of DNA that controls a certain trait.
gene
variant forms of a gene
allele
_______ have allele frequency.
populations
Evolution occurs in a population when _____ _____ change from one generation to the next.
Allele frequencies
a change in the DNA sequence and can create new alleles. This causes a change in allele frequency
mutation
______ are random and cannot be predicated. Only the rate can be predicted.
Mutations
Mutations can be _____, ____ or ______.
beneficial, lethal, or have no effect on survival.
Natural Selection chooses which ____ is successful based on the environment.
Allele
There is limited movement in sexual reproduction in __________ but genes will move from one population to another and this causes changes in _____ ________.
populations; allele frequencies
is a force in evolution when organisms migrate from one population to another. This can also change allele frequencies.
gene flow
Chance events that cause allele frequencies to fluctuate unpredictably from one generation to the next in small populations.
Genetic Drift
Genetic Drift tends to reduce _____ _______.
genetic variation
The ____ the population the less likely for genetic drift for elimination of an individual.
larger
When populations reduce largely; drastically affect the population and decreases the genetic variability.
genetic bottleneck
An example of two things that reduce genetic variability
humans are the biggest cause of reducing population and inbreeding
The formation of colonies; which only bring the alleles they have; starting a brand new population
founder effect
_____ and _______ are the key to the evolution game.
Survival and Reproduction
a form of natural selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates
sexual selection
Differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species. For example, humans are slightly dimorphic for body size, with males being taller, on average, than females of the same population.
sexual dimorphism
teology
each structure has a function and reason for being, which is evident from the design in nature
The biological species concept states that two populations are different species if they do not _________ under natural conditions.
interbreed
______ ______ makes interbreeding unlikely.
Reproductive isolation
The biological species concept and reproductive isolation only apply to ______ _______ organisms.
sexual reproducing
Mechanisms that restrict two different species from mating:
biochemical and physically
If two different species do mat, their offspring is called a _____. These organisms are ____.
hybrid;sterile
If 2 different species produce a fertile offspring than they are _____________ but generally unadvantaged.
their own species
New species that have evolved through time
speciation
Speciation always occurs ___________ - meaning only splits in 2 at one time.
dichontomous
major change in a species
macroevolution
allele evolution is also called
microevolution
a single species evolving and changing through time; may appear different but still the same species; not speciation
anagenesis
branching that leads to two different descendants/species
cladogenesis
branches
clades
The pace of evolution is called _____ ______ saying that the change is very gradual.
evolutionary gradualism
not much change occurs but when it does it is a rapid and abrupt change
punctuated equilibrium
complexity argues that:
an organism cannot evolve things to be complex from simple.
irreductable complexity argues:
An organism cannot have evolved from a simpler organism because it cannot function any simpler than it is.
Relates to the changes in timing or pace of development; one way we can see rapid evolutionary change concretely.
heterochromy
how rapid a body part develops or grows; often determined by a single gene
allometric growth
Changes in _________ ________ allows some parts to grow slow and some parts fast.allometric growth
allometric growth
Adults still having juvenile traits or characteristics; determined by natural selection through turning on that timing gene
paedomorphosis
___ ___normal rate of extinction
background rate
individual species or population dies out
extinction
large number of extinction occurs in short amount of time dealing with many different species
mass extinction
time of extinction dinosaur (__-__) large decline
(__-___) mass extinction
K-T
P-T
mass extinction can lead to ___ ___
adaptive radiation
___ a large amount of speciation leading to many new species from a common ancestor
adaptive radiation
a ____ or ___ could cause adaptive radiation
new habitat
speciation increased after dinosaurs became extinct
a third type of adaptive radiation is when __
a new form of a way of doing things changes
___ comes from common ancestor and evolves into man different species. Had to adapt to a new environment
adaptive radiation
three reasons for adaptive radiation
1. brand new location
2. survivors adapt
3. new way of doing things
___ usually follows adaptive radiation
mass extinction
____ is the identification, naming, and classification of species
taxonomy
reconstructing evolutionary history is part of the science of ___
systematics
the study of the diversity and relationships of organisms, both past and present
systematics
Linnaeus's system assigns to each species a two-part latinized name, or ___
binomial
the first part of a binomial is the ___ to which the species belongs
genus
the second part of a binomial refers to one particular ____ (or ____) within the genus
species (specific epithet)
___ is always capitalized
genus
a subspecies adds a third name ____
trinomial
when a species is described it has gone through a ___ and ___
journal
editors
Hierarchical classification
domain kingdom phylum class order family genus species
__- general term used for classification it can be used for any group
taxon
plural of taxon
taxa
why do classification scheme differ?
-new things are discovered; change over time
- changes in order to more show relationships which causes changes in textbooks and grouping
-may change because scientist differ in the relationships therefore classification
the classification system tries to show ____ relationships
evolutionary
ever since Darwin, systematics has had a goal beyond simple organization: to have classification reflect ___, which is the evolutionary history of a species
phylogeny
As a systematist classifies species into groups subordinate to other groups in the taxonomic hierarchy, the final product takes on the branching pattern of a ____ or ___
phylogenetic tree
cladogram
A ___ consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants- a distinctive branch in the tree of life
clade
branching points on cladogram are called
nodes
___- cannot figure out how they are related
unresolved nodes
___- goal is to make all the descendants of a common ancestor (one group contains all descendants of a common ancestor)
monophyletic
___ focuses on the evolutionary innovations that define the branch points in evolution
cladistics
cladistics requires a comparison between a so-called ___ and ___.
in-group
out-group
a ____ character is a homology present in all the organisms being compared and so must also have been present in the common ancestor.
primitive
The ___ character are the evolutionary innovations that define the sequence of branch points (numbered) in the phylogeny of the in-group.
derived
____- even though homologous homologous do not always distinguish classification it can be derived characteristic or primitive characteristic
shared primitive characteristics
shared primitive characteristics has ___
at least one characteristic in common
___- is unique to a monophyletic taxon
- it can be used for specific classification
shared derived characteristics
___ is not useful in classification
homoplasy
____ group should have one shared derived characteristic
monophyletic
viruses are NOT ___
bacteria
agent of disease
pathogen
viruses are examples of ___ because they are NOT cells
infectious particles
A virus is ___ in having genes and a highly organized structure, but it differs from a ____ in not being mad of cells and not being able to reproduce on its own.
lifelike
living organism
viruses are hard to see and have to use ___
scanning electron microscopes
all viruses have at least 2 pars in common:
1. ___
2.a nucleic acid at the core making it either a
a. b. (can't be both)
capsid
DNA viruses
RNA viruses
other things can be present in viruses such as
glycoprotein (carb attached)
A virus has to get to a ___ aka
cell
host cell
The ____ ___ must be put into the cell (DNA/RNA)
nucleic acid
viruses only reproduce while __
in cell
Viruses find a way to make cell make more DNA by ____
replicating viral DNA codes
The __ and ___ of viruses on the cell often cause damage/illness
assembly
exiting
__ are chemicals that affect bacteria
antibiotics
__ are not typically by antibiotics
viruses
because viruses are not typically by antibiotics it makes it difficult to ____
treat but vaccination prevent
viruses cat evolve from cells because ___
they need cells to reproduce
prokaryotes are the ___ and ___
archaea
bacteria
___- a characteristic meaning no nucleus
prokaryotes
archaeans are more closely related to ___ than ___
eukaryans
bacteria
___ are cells so they have a __ __ varying in shapes, have ___, ___
prokaryotes
cell membrane
cytoplasm
DNA
Prokaryotes DNA is not inside a nucleus it is inside a ____ having a single loop of ___ (often called___)
single molecule
DNA
bacterial chromosome
___ do not have ribosomes
prokaryotes
where are the proteins made
ribosomes
Prokaryotes have other things like ___, ___, or ____ to control movement
a cell wall
flagella
sliding
Prokaryotes have __ effect on water movement
scalor
__- a small ring of DNA separate from the chromosome(s).
plasmids
__ have to survive and reproduce
bacteria
bacteria divide into two by ____
binary fission
Bacteria daughter cells have to have ____ of DNA by ___
both sets
replication
Bacteria do not have __ but can exchange DNA
sexual reproduction
Bacteria exchange DNA by
forming a tube which they swap DNA or plasmids
Archaeans are everywhere ___ is
liquid (water)
__ can live where bacteria can't
archaeans
___ like habitats that are extreme and harsh to other organism
etremeophile
___- live in high pH levels
acidophiles
___- live in hot temp
thermophiles
__- live in high salt areas
halophiles
___- live in atmospheres with out oxygen
methanogens
methanogens make ___ as a biproduct
methane gas