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any manual method, physical or mechanical device, material, or equipment that immobilizes or reduces the ability of a patient to move his or her arms, legs, body, or head freely: a drug or medication when it is used as a restriction to manage the patient's behavior or restrict the patient's freedom of movement and is not a standard treatment or dosage for the patient's condition is a last resort.

safety event report

documentation that describes any injury of potential for injury sustained by a patient in a healthcare agency


Respond to present
Evaluate potential for injury
speak with family members or caregivers
Try alternative measures first
Reassess the patient to determine alternatives
Alert primary care provider if restraints are indicated.
individualize restraint use
Note important information on the chart
Time-limit the use of restraints


movement away from the center of median line of the body


movement toward the center or median line of the body


surgical formation or reformation of a joint

compartment syndrome

occurs when there is increased tissue pressure within a limited space; leads to compromises in the circulation and the function of the involved tissue


permanent shortening or tightening of a muscle due to spasm or paralysis


an injury in which the skin is not broken a bruise

deep-vein thrombosis

blood clot in a blood vessel originating in the large veins of the legs


return movement from flexion, the joint angle is increased


bending of the joint so that the angle of the joint diminishes


break in teh continuity of the bone


an apparatus to measure joint movement and angles


extreme or abnormal extension

orthostatic hypotension

an abnormal drop in blood pressure that occurs as a person changes from a supine to a standing position

patient care ergonomics

the practice of design in equipment and work tasks to conform to the capability of the worker in relation to patient care. it provides a means for adjusting the work environment and work practices to prevent injuries before they occur and is part of best practices for providing safe patient care.

peripheral vascular disease

pathological conditions of the vascular system characterized by reduced blood flow through the peripheral blood vessels


the act of lying face downward the act of turning the hand so the palm faces downward or backward


process of turning on an axis twisting or revolving

shearing force

force created by the interplay of gravity and friction on the skin and underlying tissues. Shear causes tissue layers to slide over one another and blood vessels to stretch and twist and disrupts the microcirculation of the skin and subcutaneous tissues


turning of the palm or foot upward


blood clot that accompanies vein inflammation


formation or development of blood clot

venous stasis

decrease in blood flow in the venous system related to dysfunctional valves or inactivity of the muscles of the affected extremity

effects of immobility

*decreased muscle strength, tone, size
*decreased joint mobility and flexibility
*limited endurance and activity intolerance
*bone demineralization
*lack of coordination and altered gait
decreased ventilatory effort,increased respiratory secretions, atelectasis, respiratory congestion
*increased cardiac workload, orthostatic hypotension, venous thrombosis
*impaired circulation and skin breakdown
*decreased appetite, constipation
*urinary stasis, infection
*altered sleep patterns, pain, depression, anger, anxiety

movement equipment

gait belts
lateral-assist devices
stand-assist and repositioning aids
mechanical lateral-assist devices
transfer chairs
powered stand-assist and repositioning lifts
powered full-body lifts

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