65 terms

AC 02/03/12

STUDY
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phosphorylation/dephosphorylation
Changes in protein WITHIN a cell are done via
-2
PO4 (a phosphate group) has a formal charge of _____
It makes it more hydrophillic
What happens when we add a phosphate group to something like Tyr?
Epithelial
The cells that cover "external" body surfaces.
False (they line the interior)
True or false: Epithelial cells of the kidney line the outside of the kidney.
Basal lamina
The non-cellular protein structure upon which epithelial cells sit.
True
True or false: epithelial cells line our skin, bladder, kidney, and GI among many other areas.
kidney tubules
Simple cuboidal epithelia cells are found in the.....
Simple cuboidal epithelia
The type of epithelia found in kidney tubules.
Simple cuboidal epithelia
Simple cuboidal epithelia
Simple columnar epithelia
Type of epithelia that is found in the lining of the gut.
Gut
Simple columnar epithelia is found in the...
Simple columnar epithelia
Simple columnar epithelia
Stratified Squamous Epithelia
The epithelia found in our skin.
skin
Stratified Squamous Epithelia is found in our....
False (Stratified Squamous Epithelia is this way)
True or false: simple columnar epithelia is the only type of epithelia with multiple layers.
True
True or false: Stratified Squamous Epithelia has multiple rows that are different from base to top.
Stratified Squamous Epithelia
Stratified Squamous Epithelia
False (it appears to have multiple layers, but it doesn't actually)
True or false: in Pseudostratified epithelia there are multiple cell layers.
True
True or false: every cell touches the basal lamina in Pseudostratified epithelial cells.
In the respiratory system
Pseudostratified epithelial cells are found....
Pseudostratified epithelia
The respiratory system is lined with...
Pseudostratified epithelia
Pseudostratified epithelia
they can replace themselves
The hallmark characteristic of epithelial cells
Basal cell
Fill in the gap:
_____________
Prickle Cells
Granule cells
Keratinized squames
Squame about to flake off
Prickle Cells
Fill in the gap:
Basal lamina
______________
Granule cells
Keratinized squames
Squame about to flake off
Granule cells
Fill in the gap:
Basal lamina
Prickle Cells
_____________
Keratinized squames
Squame about to flake off
Keratinized squames
Fill in the gap:
Basal lamina
Prickle Cells
Granule cells
__________________
Squame about to flake off
Squame about to flake off
Fill in the gap:
Basal lamina
Prickle Cells
Granule cells
Keratinized squames
____________________
Keratin (a transmembrane protein)
What prickle cells produce.
Desosomes
What forms when two prickle cells have connecting keratin.
Desmosomes
_____________ anchor the cells together very strongly.
True
True or false: the keratin bonds bring prickle cells very close together, and the cytoskeleton also ends up bonding.
Differentiation (the accumulation of keratin)
What happens to prickle cells as we get past the first layer and into the second layer.
False (prickle cells do this)
True or false: Basal lamina cells cells start to change shape and start to accumulate keratin within them, thus forming granule cells.
True
True or false: granule cells may have so much keratin that they may obscure light within them for a light microscopy.
Prickle cells
Granular cells
keratin is within them in the granules
True
True or false: granular cells seal one-to-another very tightly, creating a watertight seal
rapid dehydration
What happens if we have a malfunction of our granular cell layer?
To keep water out
Primary purpose of granular cell layer.
Granular cell
The type of stratified squamous epithelial cell that undergoes apoptosis.
False (they die in a very controlled manner)
True or false: granular cells are dying in a very uncontrolled way → we see damage to other cells
True
True or false: granular cells are less able to reproduce than prickle cells.
Keratinized Squames
As granule cells dry up, they accumulate protein, resulting in flat (formally living) cells that are mostly keratin. These are called....
True
True or false: after the basal lamina, there is not a lot of mitosis, we just see changes in morphology.
Mitosis
What basal cells go through in order to reproduce.
Prickle cell or basal cell
The two options for daughter cells of basal lamina mitosis.
undifferentiated, increased
The basal cell is highly _____________(undifferenteiated/differentiated) cell, thus causing it to have ____________ (increased/decreased) reproductive potential.
differentiated, decreased
The prickle cell is a more _____________(undifferenteiated/differentiated) cell, thus causing it to have ____________ (increased/decreased) reproductive potential.
unipotent stem cell
-basal cells are a __________________, which means that they can reproduce for as long as an animal is alive and longer
False (basal cells behave this way)
True or false: prickle cells are an example of a unipotent stem cell, meaning that they can reproduce for as long as an animal is alive and longer.
Connection with basal lamina
Put simply, how are basal cells told to stop differentiating?
On (though the presence of a bond is not enough to make it a stem cell)
Basal cells are turned ______ (off/on) by connection with basal lamina
Hemidesmosome
an intercellular connection that joins cells to extracellular material such as the basal lamina.
Keratin (with a protein receptor)
The structure on a basal cell that extends to bond with the basal lamina protein.
True
True or false: the receptor/ligand connection is a signal, creating intracellular connections that allow for stem cell ability.
True
True or false: If a stem cell loses contact with the protein (collagen), then it MUST differentiate.
False (we can only make a monolayer along the basal lamina)
True or false: we can make multiple layers of basal cells along the basal lamina.
On
Basal cells are turned ______ (off/on) by external soluble molecules.
Increase mitosis
What do the external signals signal the basal cell to do?