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intro, history, motivated brain, neurotransmission & physiological needs

reasons to study motivation and emotion

it's interesting and fun, learn about self, learn about others, practical/useful can help enhance performance, can make a better workplace

2 perennial questions

what causes behaviour, why does behaviour vary in intensity

sources of motivation

there are four. Internal: needs, cognitions & emotions. and external: external events


essential and necessary for maintaining life, nurturance of growth and well being


mental events such as goals plans, thoughts, beliefs, expectations and ways of thinking


short-lived subjective physiological functional phenomenon that orchestrate how we react adaptively to the important events in our lives

external events

environmental, social & cultural sources of motivation that have the capacity to energize and direct behaviour

behavioural expressions of motivation

attention, effort, latency (time between stimuli exposure and behaviour), persistance, choice, probability of response, facial/body expressions

behavioural engagement

indications of this are attention, effort, and persistance

emotional engagement

indications of this are interest, enjoyment, low anger and low frustration

cognitive engagement

indications of this are a sophisticated learning strategy and active self-regulation

voice engagement

this is indicated by offering suggestions, making contributions and asking questions

brain and physiological activity

way to measure motivation by looking at the body for example brain activity, hormonal activity, ocular activity, electrodermal activity and skeletal activity

measures of motivation

behaviour, engagement, brain and physiological activity and self-report

plato's model of the soul

contains the calculating, competitive and primitive soul. motivation can stem from any of these parts. hierarchical model


part of plato's model of the soul this is the decision making part


part of plato's model of the soul. this part is the socially referenced standard


this is part of plato's model of the soul this is where the desires like hunger and sex are found

aristotle's model of the soul

this model of the soul contains the rational, sensitive and nutritive parts


part of aristotle's model of the soul it is the idea related, this is where the will is


this is part of Aristotle's model of the soul. this part regulates pleasure and pain


this is part of aristotle's model of the soul. it is impulsive, irrational and animal like

rene descartes

this man was a dualist who believed that body and mind(including the will) were separate and interacted at the pineal gland. Body was just mechanical but the mind was immaterial and motivationally active

acts of the will

part of rene descartes theory. there are 3 parts to this, resisting, striving and choosing


this is part of rene descartes acts of the will. it includes self-denial and resisting temptation


part of rene descartes acts of the will. it is selecting goals and strategies to achieve them


part of rene descartes acts of the will. it is all of our decisions


major instinct theorist who proposed that motivation was rooted in organisms genetic endowment. the presence of a stimuli would enable reflexes

william james

he said that humans have physical and mental instincts which translate into goal-directed behaviour in the presence of appropriate stimulus

william McDougall

he siad that instincts are "prime movers", irrational and impulsive motivational forces that direct people to a certain goal

freud's drive theory

this theory states that there is a source (bodily deficit) which leads to an impetus (intensity of the bodily deficit) which then leads to the object (seeking out to reduce discomfort by consuming object)

Hull's drive theory

this theory states that bodily disturbances leads to drive which energized behaviour, while habit is what directs behaviour. furthermore strength of drive can be calculated by have x drive (x incentive)

classical conditioning

motivated behaviour can be explained through this form of learning by pairing a behaviour with a stimulus

reinforcement theory

motivated behaviour is rooted in environmental contingencies (reward and punishment)

social learning

motivated behaviour stems from info that humans process about their environment (other people)


external events that energize and direct approach or avoidance behaviours


these adopted a more active view of humans, motivation become more cognitive and humanistic. and it become more applied

humanistic theories

from lowest to highest this is a pyramid of needs
1.physiological needs needs
3.belongingness/love needs
4.esteem needs
5.cognitive needs
6. aesthetic needs
7.self-actualization needs

expectancy-value theories

motivational behaviour stems from expectations of achieving certain outcomes that range in value

goal-setting theories

motivated behaviour stems from setting goals that one is able to commit to

social-cognitive theories of goal setting

motivated behaviour stems from feelings of self-efficacy (belief that you are able to attain your goals)

contemporary era

many perspectives/theories about motivation
ex; social, educational, cognitive clinical etc

3 principles of the motivated brain

1. specific brain structures generate specific motivational states
2. biochemical agents play a role in stimulating brain structures which leads to motivated behaviour
3.environment triggers the biochemical agents giving rise to motivated behaviour

central nervous system

the brain and spinal cord

peripheral nervous system

all nerves that project out of the spinal cord

autonomic nervous system

part of the peripheral nervous system. tit is what we do not control

sympathetic nervous system

part of the autonomic nervous system, it mobilizes body for the "fight or flight" reflex

parasympathetic nervous system

part of the autonomic nervous system. it is responsible fot the "rest & digest" activities in the body.

somatic nervous system

part of the peripheral nervous system it is responsible for all voluntary body movements

endocrine system

this system regulates hormones. glands are triggered by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to release hormones

cat scan

this brain scan looks at brain structures, it uses xray imaging to see skull fractures, tumors, blood clots and brain bleeding

pet scan

this brain scan looks at brain function using radioactive glucose. active parts of the brain absorb glucose and light up.


this brain scan uses powerful magnetic fiel which affects the magnetic field in the body's cells and are detected on a scanner. it shows brain structure


this type of brain scan shows brain activity. it measures the parts of the brain using the most oxygen and assumes these are the most active parts.

approach based brain parts

hypothalamus, medial forebrain bundle, orbitofrontal cortex, septal area, nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, cerebral cortex, left prefrontal cortex and medial prefrontal cortex

avoidance based brain parts

right prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus

reticular formation

part of the brain associated with arousal


-this brain structure bring desire for food and sex it controls the endocrine system and the autonomic nervous system, it regulates the body;s internal environment and allows us to adopt to environment stressors

pituitary gland

when stimulated it stimulates the adrenals which releases stress hormones and stimulates the sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight), when stressor has passed it triggers the parasympathetic nervous system which makes us feel relaxed

medial forebrain bundle

this brain structure is a bunch of fibres in the middle of the brain it is called the pleasure center.studies show stimulating this area of a rats brain will cause them to repeat the activity done while it was stimulated

orbitofrontal cortex

this brain structure is active when we make choice

anterior cingulate cortex

this brain structure plays a role in making choices and controlling day to day mood. when activity in this area is low we feel sad


this brain structure is 2 almonds in the middle part of the brain and is part of the limbic system. they play a role in processing emotional information especially fear, anxiety and anger. it plays a role in responding to the environment as well as ensuring self-preservation. stimulating one area results in anger and stimulating the other area results in anxiety. there is a unidirectional relationship with more connections going out than coming in. this explains why emotions can take over our thoughts but it is difficult to control our emotions through our thoughts

septo-hippocampal circuit

part of the limbic system. it plays a role in relaying emotional information to cognitive structures. it also plays a role in affective forecasting (predicting future emotions). nucleus is stimulated with naturally rewarding stimulus (ex good food), hippocampus compares expectation w/current experiences if the expectations match or are better then you will feel good if they do not meet up then it will trigger anxiety

medial prefrontal cortex

brain structure related to learning response-outcome contingencies related to perceptions of control and mastery

right prefrontal cortex

associates with negative emotions and related to avoidance based behaviours. Behavioural inhibition system

left prefrontal cortex

this associates with positive emotions and related to approach based behaviours. behavioural activation system


part of neuron that receives message


part of neuron that passes messages from the cell body to surrounding neurons

terminal branches

part of neuron that connect with other cells

myelin sheath

part of neuron that insulates the axon and increases transmission speed

action potential

neuron at rest has a negatively charged interior and positively charged exterior. when dendrites receive signal positively charged ion rush inside the cell


chemicals bond to the the receptors of the receiving neuron in a key-lock mechanism


pre-synaptic neuron re-absorbs the excess neurotransmitter


neurotransmitter that is released when we have incentives (anticipation causes rush). when released it is rewarding and reinforces the behaviour it activates goal directed approach responses, for full reward wanting and liking must occur together. addictive drugs produce hypersensitivity to this neurotansmitter


drugs that are similar enough to the structure on a neurotransmitter that it mimics its effect


drugs which has a structure similar to a neurotransmitter so it can block its action but not similar enough to produce its effect


sadness, eating habits change, sleep habits change, withdraw from others. theory says it is caused by under activity of monomines (serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine etc) due to an enzyme MAOS which metabolizes them

anti-depressant drugs

monoamine oxidase inhibitors, re-uptake inhibitors etc, drugs work in combination

non-prescription drugs

consumption involves approach and avoidance based motivations it can be used to enhance good states or escape bad states. they are addictive because they activate the dopamine pathways and interfere with normal re-uptake process thus concentrations remain in the synapse much longer

heroin and morphines

these drugs stimulate the release of abnormally high amounts of dopamine and hijack the opioid system by binding to the same receptors as natural endorphins

cocaine and amphetamines

these drugs bind to receptors in the pre-synaptic neuron that enable the re-uptake of dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin thus resulting in an excess of them in the synaptic gap


these drugs bind to the anandamide receptors and this slow down activity and excitability of the brains neural network. aslo reduces GABA a natural inhibitor of dopamine increasing dopamine and therefore, pleasure.


this drug acts as a stimulant and hallucinogen by blocking the re=uptake pumps of serotonin thus increasing the levels in the synaptic gap. it also reduces activity of tryptophan hydroxylase an enzyme which synthesizing serotonin therefore reducing levels

sympathetic adrenomedullary system

short-term fight or flight response, it releases adrenaline directly

hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical

long term flight or flight response it is affected by our perception of the even as a challenge or stressful


stress hormone associated with poor intellectual functioning, negative affect and poor health outcomes


hormone associated with high sexual motivation and underlies the mating effort


a bonding hormone that motivates seeking the council, support and nurturance of others during times of stress

physiological needs

need for thirst, hunger, sex and sleep. and inherent need

psychological needs

need for autonomy, competence and relatedness. an inherent need

social needs

need for achievement, affiliation, intimacy and power these are learned needs

7 processes of need

1. need
2. drive
4.negative feedback
5.multiple inputs/outputs
6.extra organismic mechanisms


intraorganismic mechanisms monitor and regulate internal states, if internal conditions are too high negative feedback is signaled, if conditions are too low physical need activates a drive. Both negative feedback and drive can be activated by extraorganismic mechanisms as well


consciously experienced motivated state that produces a deficiency motivation, it arises as a physiological need from multiple inputs and readies the organism to engage in behaviours that replenish water deficit

osmometric thirst

depletion of intracellular fluids

volumetric thirst

depletion of extracellular fluid

thirst activation

caused by lack of water in the cells or osmometric thirst


mechanism that rehydrations occurs through


one location of week inhibition for negative feedback, signalled by number of gulps


a weak source of inhibition for negative feedback of thirst

hypothalamus and kidneys

in relation to thirst a brain structure monitors cell shrinkage and releases a hormone into the blood that sens a message to an organ to conserve its water, and potential release water. the brain structure also creates the conscious state of being thirsty

environmental influences on thirst

main influence is taste, studies show that adding a little bit of any taste (salty, bitter, sour or sweet) will increase liking than just plain water however any flavour in too high concentration (except sweet) is perceived as less desirable than plain water

lateral hypothalamus

brain structure related to hunger when blood sugar is low it releases ghrelin a hunger hormone and produces orexins which increase appetite

ventromedial hypothalamus

when there is high blood sugar this brain structure sends signals of satiety by the release of cholecytostokin and leptin

external cues for hunger

these cues can induce eating: mouth, body temp, stomach (depletes at 210 calories per hour 60% empty= little hunger, 90% empty=maximum hunger

type 2 diabetes

in this condition the stomach changes food into glucose which enters the bloodstream. insulin is then created but the glucose cannot get into the cels of the body so it builds up in the blood

lipostatic hypothesis

when stored energy drops below its set point it drops below its homeostatic balance then ghrelin promotes hunger if it is above its set point then leptin decreases hunger and food intake

set-point theory

theory that weight is set up by genetics (number of fat cells and metabolic rate), hunger and satiety depends on size not number of fat cells. when fat cells are reduced through dieting hunger arises and persists until feeding. This rises through age and metabolic rate drops following prolonged caloric deprivation


chronic excess food intake lead to an increase in fat cell size


chronic excess food intake leads to increase in fat cell numbers

environmental influences on eating

more variety of food and the sight or smell of food can make us hungry. also when eating in the company of others we tend to eat more

cognitive models of eating

dieters ignore biological cues of eating and try to apply cognitive controls on their food intake. doing so increase the distance between hunger and satiety

dieters break diet

in response to strong emotional cues like stress, anxiety or depression or in response to strong situational cues such as exposure to high calorie foods, tasty foods,food shows, when ego depleted or intoxicated

what the hell effect

when dieters break their diet they continue to consume more foods afterwards


intense cognitive controls over eating it is defined as the refusal to maintain body weight at 85% or above normal weight. accompanied with an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat. as well as disturbances in the way in which ones weight or shape is experienced and weight as being abnormally important to self-worth, plus amenorrhea


the loss of cognitive controls, it is recurrent episodes of binge eating with a sense of lack of control followed by recurrent of unhealthy compensatory behaviour to prevent weight gain. This binge eating and purging cycle must occur at least twice a week for 2 months and be accompanied by a self-evaluation which is unduly influenced by body shape and weight

antecedents of eating disorders

-genetic predisposition
-specific personality traits (eg: perfections)
-insecure attachments to early caregivers
-history of restrictive and critical messages from caregivers about eating
-parental encouragement to diet
-history of being teased about weight
-exposure to appearance based messages

model of disordered eating

pressures to be thin leads to internalization of the thin ideal leading to body dissatisfaction then dieting and negative affect and finally the onset of disordered eating

the beauty myth

idea that messages presented to us in the media as the ideal are unachievable even though people may know this they still continue to strive for this ideal with the thought that it will make their entire life better (better at school, work, better love life, more friends etc)


construction of the body as a collection of body parts which are observable to others. it is seeing oneself through the eyes of another. it can be an enduring trait or can be experienced as a state brought on by certain stimuli (mirror, media, clothes shopping etc)

objectification theory

objectification can lead to consequences increase in body shame, increase in appearance anxiety, eating disorders, depression and can lead to a disruption of peak motivational states(when focused on our body's appearance we do not concentrate on the ask at hand)

self-determination theory

people's determination ranged from low to high. in order. nonregulation, external regulation, introspected regulation, identified regulation, integrated regulation and intrinsic motivation

prevention for eating disorders

strengthening protective factors, decreasing risk factors, try to escape the internalization fo the thin ideal and realize than the thin ideal is unhealthy

obesity prevention

3 motivations for this. 1. the regulation of food intake.
2. mindfulness over ones environmental influences
3. exercise motivation

beta waves

fast irregular waves from 15-40 cps they occur in two situations when you are awake and alert or when in the REM stage of sleep

alpha waves

(9-14 cps) these waves occur when a person is awake and relaxed. they are large amplitude and slow

theta waves

(5-8 cps) slow, regular waves occurring in sleep stages 1-2

stage 1 sleep

this stage of sleep is when the muscles relax breathing slows down and brain activity slows

stage 2 sleep

this stage of sleep is when everything starts to slow down except bursts of brain activity called spindles, when sleep talking usually occurs

stage 3 and 4 sleep

this stage is our deepest sleep, brain activity slows down but we can still process stimuli in our environment

delta waves

large amplitude slow waves during stages 3-4 of sleep (1.5-4 cps)

REM sleep

this stage of sleep is when there is a lot of activity in the brain but the body is very relaxed, there are beta waves just like when the brain is awake and alert

sleep cycles

sleep is organized into 90 minute intervals with each consecutive one stage 4 sleep gets shorter and REM increases

circadian rhythm

internal clock regulated by sunlight. Hypothalamus signals to the pituitary gland to decrease melatonin production and triggers the adrenals to release adrenaline and cortisol

triggers for sleep

circadian rhythm, environmental arousal, length of time since last slept, individual differences..

reasons for sleep

1. protect (against predators)
2. recuperate (restore/repair brain tissue)
3.aids memory
4. feeds creative thinking

sleep deprivation

this suppresses the immune system, alters metabolic and hormonal functioning (increasing ghrelin and cortisol, reduces leptin), depletes cognitive resources, alters sleep cycle


one perspective of sexuality research which focuses on biological and physiological aspects of sex, the hormones, brain structures , genitals etc

social constructionist

a perspective of sexuality research which focuses on sexuality as shaped by our culture and society

heiman study

study which made groups listen to one of four tapes (erotic, romantic, erotic-romantic or control) they found that erotic romantic was the one that turned on both men and women the most. However they found that when men self-report being aroused they are. however women will self-report not being aroused although they physiologically are

traditional sex response cycle

trigger activates desire > becomes arousal > leads to climax and then > resolution and refectory period. This cycle is more descriptive of men

alternative sex response cycle

intimacy needs > sexual stimuli > sexual arousal > sexual desire to continue > enhanced intimacy . cycle more descriptive of women

grafenburg spot

-small gland on the front wall of the vagina whose ducts empty into the urethra, source of female ejaculation in 10-20% of women

evolutionary perspective

men should show signs of being a protector and provider while women should show signs of being fertile and having good genes

double standard

okay for men to have many partners and even encouraged but it is frowned upon for women to have sex outside of relationships

sexual scripts

norms for sexual behaviour. Men as initiators and women either resist or comply

adolescent sexual scripts

-complex interplay between developing bosy, early experiences with masturbation and messages from media/parents/peers. early experiences with masturbation are important source of learning about sexuality and girls who do not have experience with it may develop sexual problems later on.
motive for first intercourse for women is affection for partner while men is curiosity and feeling ready

adult sexual scripts

communication about sex is difficult for couple. men prefer implicit consent while women prefer explicit. Men are likely to judge green-light in ambiguous sexual situations.

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