Biology test 9th oct MOLECULE REVIEW

1. In terms of science, what does the term "organic" mean?
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Where Glycogen is found its function and characteristics?Animals Specific starch found in the liver and muscles of animals‐ it is a readily available source of energyWhere Cellulose is found its function and characteristics?Plants A plant starch found in the cell walls, which help make the plant rigidName the 3 main types of lipids:Oils, fats, waxes, cholesterol, membrane (you could have any of these).What are the main functions of lipids?a Usable energy for cells b. They make up the cell membrane c. Used for insulationFatty acid are what kind of macro- molecules?monomersFats, Lipid & Membrane are what kind of macro-molecules?polymersWhat kind of bonds do saturated fats have?Have fatty acids in which all carbon-carbon bonds are SINGLE BONDSWhat kind of bonds do unsaturated fats have?Have fatty acids with at least one carbon-carbon DOUBLE BONDSsaturated fats- State (soild/liquid/gas) at room temperatureSolidsaturated fats-Commonly found in which type of organisms?animalsUnsaturated fats- State (soild/liquid/gas) at room temperatureliquidsUnsaturated fats-Commonly found in which type of organisms?PlantsWhat is the structure of Phospholipid?It has 2 parts- a) It has a Polar, phosphate HEAD (usually glycerol in other lipids) b) Non polar, fatty acid TAILWhat is a Nucleotide ? Nucleotides are what kind of macro- molecules?Nucleotides are kinds of nucleic acid They are MONOMERSWhat are DNA & RNA and they are what kind of macro- molecules?DNA & RNA are kinds of nucleic acid They are POLYMERSWhat is the function of DNA?DNA stores information/instructions on how to make proteins.What is the function of RNA?RNA Copies DNA's instructions and takes them to the ribosome.In DNA segment P isP (phosphate)In DNA segment S isS (sugar)In DNA segment A isA (adenine)In DNA segment G isG (guanine)In DNA segment T isT (thymine)In DNA segment C isC (cytosine)Amino acids are what kind of macro- molecules?MONOMERSProtein/polypeptide are what kind of macro- molecules?POLYMERSWhat are hemoglobin? What they do?hemoglobin are protien. They transports oxygenHow many different amino acids are used to build proteins in organisms?20What determines the type of protein made?The order / arrangement of amino acids determines the type of protein made.What can cause change a protein's structure and function?Incorrect placement of amino acid can cause in change a protein's structure and function.What type of bonds form between amino acids?Peptide bonds (a type of covalent bond)What is another term for protein?PolypeptideKnow the molecule picture of amino acid & label itDefine enzyme:A type of protein that speeds up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy.What is another term for an enzyme?A catalyst (which is something that speeds things up).Why are enzymes important?a. They reduce the activation energy, allowing homeostasis to be maintained. b. Give two examples: i. Enzymes help break down food (metabolism/digestion) ii. Enzymes help build proteinWhat are the characteristics of EnzymesSPECIFIC : Enzymes have a specific "active site" where only certain molecules can bond (that's why it's called a "lock and key"). Their names are specific to what they do, ex: amylase breaks down amylose. REUSABLE: Enzymes can be used over and over. SENSITIVE: Must stay within a set range of temperature and/or pH, otherwise they start to break apartWhat causes enzymes to no longer work?pH, temperature, radiation, chemicals interacting with the enzymes outside of healthy ranges.At the atom level nucleic acid is made which elements?Phosphorus, carbon , hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen Think "PCHON"how are CARBOHYDRATES MADE UP OF ?Carbohydrates are chains (polymers) made of monomers. The most common monomer of carbohydrates is...GLUCOSE