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Psych Ch 1, 2 , and 4
Terms in this set (102)
Definition of Psychology
study of behavior and mental processes
What is Behavior?
outward or overt actions and reactions
What are mental processes?
- internal, covert activity of our minds
Psychology's four goals are:
What is happening?
Why is it happening?
Theory - general explanation of a set of observations or facts
Will it happen again?
How can it be changed?
What did aristotle connect?
soul and body
What is structuralism?
mind consists of basic elements analyzed via objective introspection (to look within the self)
What did Rene Descartes find?
founded modified dualism - mind and body have reciprocal interaction via pineal gland?
Where/When was the first psychology lab?
1879, Germany, Wilhelm Wundt
What is Objective Introspection?
the process of objectively exmaning and measuring one's own thoughts and mental activities
Ex. Wundt might place an object, such as a rock, into a student's hand and have the student tell him everything that he was feeling as a result of having the rock in his hand - all the sensations stimulated by the rock
Who founded objective introspection?
Who was Edward Titchener?
-student of Wundt
-taught at Cornell University
-introspect about physical objects AND thoughts
What is structuralism?
-expanded version of Wundt's ideas
-objective introspection could be used on thoughts as well as on physical sensations
-ex. What is blue?
Who founded Functionalism?
What is functionalism?
viewpoint on how people work, place, and adapt to their surroundings. how we functioned on a regular basis. "stream of thought vs elements of mind"?
Who founded Gestalt Psychology?
What is Gestalt Psychology?
believe that people naturally seek out patterns (wholes) in available sensory info, "the whole is greater than the sum of its part", part of the study of "Cognitive psychology", a field focusing not only on perception but also on learning, memory, thought processes, and problem solving
What founded PsychoAnalysis?
Sigmund Fruend, neurologist, lived in Vienna most of his life
What is PsychoAnalysis?
interpreting relating thoughts; insight therapy for fear and anxiety; unconscious mind has power; early childhood experiences make you how you are as an adult ( first 6 years)
Who founded Behaviorism?
John B. Watson; but based on the work of Ivan Pavlov who demonstrated that a reflex could be conditioned (learned). Watson believed that phobias were learned.
What is Behaviorism?
hands-on, direct observation; how people behave, will diagnosis if they see it themselves, believed fears are learned via experiences
MP's: What is psychodynamic psychology?
focus on the unconscious mind and its influence over conscious behavior; early developmental, not sex
MP's: what is the Behavioral perspective?
founded by B.F. Skinner; studied operant conditioning of voluntary behavior
MP's: what is the Humanistic perspective?
held the view that people have free will; the freedom to choose their own destiny, early founders: abraham maslow and carl rogers, emphasized the human potential, the ability of each person to become the best person he or she could be
What is self-actualization?
achieving one's full potential or actual self
MP's: What is the cognitive perspective?
focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning
MP's: What is the sociocultural perspective?
focuses on the relationship between social behavior and culture
MP's: what is the biopsychological perspective?
attributes human and animal behavior to biological events occurring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system
MP's: what is the evolutionary perspective?
focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share; looks at the way the mind works and why it works as it does; behavior is seen as having an adaptive or survival value
What is a psychiatrist?
medical doctor who has specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders
What is a psychoanalyst?
either a psychiatrist or a psychologist who has special training in the theories of Sigmund Fruend and his method of psychoanalysis
What is a psychiatric social worker?
a social worker with some training in therpay methods who focuses on the environmental conditions that can have an impact on mental disorders, such as poverty, overcrowding, stress, and drug abuse
what is a psychologist?
a professional with an academic degree and specialized training in one or more areas of psychology
-can do counseling, teaching, and research and may specialize in any one of a large number of areas within psychology
-areas of specialization in psychology include clinical, counseling, developmental, social, and personality
What are the 5 steps in the scientific method?
1. perceive the question
2. form a hypothesis
3. test the hypothesis
4. draw conclusions
5. report your results so that others can try to replicate
DM's: What is the naturalistic observation?
watching animals or humans behave in their normal environment; advantage: realistic picture of behavior, disadvantages: 1. observer effect - tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed
tendency of people or animals to behave differently from normal when they know they are being observed
a naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed (to reduce observer effect)
tendency of observers to see what they expect to see
people who do not know what the research question is (to reduce observer bias)
DM's: laboratory observation
watching animals or humans behave in a laboratory setting, advantages: control over environment, allows use of specialized equipment, disadvantage: artificial situation that may result in artificial behavior
DM's: case study
study of one individual in great detail, advantage: tremendous amount of detail, disadvantage: cannot apply to others, famous case study: phineas gage
researchers will ask a series of questions about the topic under study; advantages: data from large numbers of people, study covert behaviors; disadvantages: have to ensure representative sample (or results not meaningful), people are not always accurate
a measure of the relationship between two variables
Define: nervous system
network of cells that carries info to and from all parts of the body
deals with the structure and function of neurons, nerves, and nervous tissue.
Relationship to behavior and learning
highly specialized cell that communicates both electrically and chemically
the nervous system comprises of which 2 systems?
CNS and PNS (peripheral nervous system)
What does the CNS comprise of?
Brain and spinal cord
What does the PNS comprise of?
The Autonomic Nervous System and the Somatic Nervous System
What does the ANS do?
Automatically regulates glands, internal organs, and blood vessels, pupil dilation, digestion, and blood pressure
What does the SNS? (somatic nervous system)
Carries sensory info and controls movement of the skeletal muscles
What does the ANA comprise of?
The Parasympathetic division, and the sympathetic division
what does the Parasympathetic division do?
bring body to conserve energy, calm, maintains body functions under ordinary conditions; saves energy
what does the sympathetic division do?
fight or flight?; stress response; prepares the body to react and expend energy in times of stress
what does the somatic NS do?
controls skeletal, sensory systems
branches that extend out, receive info to do something from axon
soma (cell body)
keeps cell alive, the body
long usually, can be short; extends to a neighboring neuron, carries neural messages, can receive messages also
insulates, speeds up, the axon
neuron fires ? or not at all
the point of communication between two neurons
causes receiving cell to fire
causes receiving cell to stop firing
function of acetylcholine
memory, muscle contractions
function of serotonin
mood, sleep, appetite
GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid)
sleep, inhibit movement
learning, memory formation, NS development
the spinal cord is a bundle of ?
what are the three types of neurons?
afferent, efferent, and interneurons
What is an afferent neuron?
a neuron that carries information from the senses to the central nervous system; also called sensory neuron
what is an efferent neuron?
a neuron that carries messages from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body; also called motor neuron
what is an interneuron?
a neuron found in the center of the spinal cord that receives information from the sensory neurons and sends commands to the muscles through the motor neurons.
Interneurons also make up the bulk of the neurons in the brain.
functions that maintains and regulates body (life sustaining functions)
sleep/dream regulation, arounsal (sympathetic), left-right body coordination
candiflower-like; involuntary fine motor movement; in control of large muscle groups; balance/posture
bundle of neurons; selective attention; alertness
located under the cortex, learning/emotions, memory, motivation
emotion, fear, dramatic, quickly jump from happy to mad, read excited, postive/negative emotions, jump to conclusions
multiple functions, sex, reproduction, body temp regulation, hunger/thirst, sleep wake cycles
receive sensory info, not smell, but all other senses, ex. bright light, squint
memory processing, long term info
outer wrinkling of the brain, more grooves means more intelligence
thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres
front part of the brain; big; not fully developed until early to mid 20's, critical thinking, decisions, speech, higher level thinking
right and left hemipheres can be divided into how many sections?
section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain
touch taste temperature, control of posture, stability
what is learning?
relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience
pavlov founded it; russian physiologist; reflexes, stimuli, and responses
what is stimulus?
an object, event, or experience; response
NS-UCS-?, then CS-?
different bell forms will bring effect, but will have less response than original
being affected by another people
Conditioned emotional response (CER)
emotional response that has become classically conditioned to occur to learned stimuli, such as a fear of dogs or the emotional reaction that occurs when seeing an attractive person.
CERs may lead to phobias - irrational fear responses.
the tendency of animals to learn certain associations, such as taste and nausea, with only one or few pairings due to the survival value of the learning.
B.F. Skinner, voluntary behaviors learned through consequences
Thorndike's Law of Effect
OP, responses followed by pleasurable consequences are repeated, ex. thorndike's puzzle box (cat in box)
studied observable, measurable behavior, learning depends on consequences
any consequnce that makes a response more likely
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