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Absolute Monarchy

is system of government where the ruler determines policy without consulting either the people or their representatives.


instrument used for navigation, which includes a magnetized piece of metal that points to the north.


an instrument used to measure the altitude.


distance from north to south of the equator.


long ships used for European coastal trade.

Commercial Revolution

changes and development in the European economy, which improved ways of doing business from 1400-1750.

Joint-Stock Company

business organization that raised money by selling investors stock, or shares, in the company.


economic theory stating that there is a fixed amount of wealth in the world and that in order to receive a large share, one country has to take some wealth away from another country.

Favorable Balance of Trade

situation that exists when a country sells more goods than it buys from a foreign country.


import taxes on foreign goods.


government grants of money.

Treaty of Tordesilles

an agreement between Spain and Portugal dividing all newly discovered lands from 1494.

Triangular Trade

system of trade involving three stages, one in Europe, one in Africa, and one in the new world, taking place in the Atlantic Ocean.

Middle Passage

second stage of the triangular trade system, which involved the shipping of slaves across the Atlantic Ocean to America.


representatives of the Spanish monarch in Spain's colonial empire.

Guerrilla Warfare

military technique relying on a swift in sudden attacks by small bands of soldiers.

Tax Farming

selling the right to collect taxes to private individuals called tax farmers.


regional administrators of a French province.

Divine Right of The King

belief that God appoints certain individuals to govern.

Balance of Power

principle of maintaining equilibrium in international politics.

Habeas Corpus

legal right protecting individuals from being arrest and imprisonment without justification.

Toleration Act

an act of the British parliament, granting some religious freedom to non-Anglican Protestants, in 1689.


leaders of the English Parliament who acted as advisers to the monarch.

Prime Minister

the head of government in Great Britain.

Limited Constitutional Monarchy

government led by a monarch whose powers were limited by a constitution, and who was required to consult Parliament.

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