World Civ Unit 2
Terms in this set (81)
During India's Gupta period, what did most villagers and farmers experience?
Relative stability and prosperity (little change in activity or appearance)/free from overpopulation of land and problems of insufficient land. and owned land
The Gupta are associated with a revival of
What was Fa Xian's major contribution?
He wrote his travel accouts of Gupta India. (Traveled silk road debatting buddahs birthplace)
Kalidasa's contribution lay in the field of
Playwriting (sanskrit literature)
When did India's North and South begin to achieve any sense of uniformity?
Why did wealthy muslims come to classical india?
To get medical treatment
What was the chief crop of Gupta India?
What was the impetus for the change in Hinduism that established a guide for moral and ethical conduct?
Buddism evolved, so hinduism developed into a less formal and more speculative approach
What was the main cause of the vast differences between northern and southern India?
South was more influenced by Buddism
What has the most popular art form amoung Hindus historically been?
Architecture and sculpture
Indian scholars were so knowledgeable that they were ofyen invited to train muslims in the city of
Where does the violent Muslim antagonism toward Indian Buddism mainly stem from?
They competed because they were both prosclutizing (both tried to convert people to their religion)
Which Hindu diety has been described as a "Christ figure without ethical teachings"?
Vishnue (the Preserver)
The Hindu diety Shiva is the god of
God of becoming (lord of life&death/destroyer&creater)
The Indus River Valley settlements are in present day...
Where were the ancient cities of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa?
along the Indus River
What is the only clearly defined cause for the abandonment of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro so far?
Landslides and the shift of climate lead to the abandonment and migration
What form did the government of the Indus Valleys take?
Why do we know so little at present about the Indus civilization?
We haven't deciphered their language yet.
What benefit did the Indians gain with the introduction of metal by the Aryans?
Gained better tools for things like agriculture.
What type of people does the Rig-Veda depict?
Depicts the warlike people of the Aryans
What does the standard of living in Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa appear to have been?
Standard of living was a caste system of people
Describe the facets of Hinduism
1. Darhma- good karma for living things
2. Reincarnation of the soul
4. unseen world is the true permanent world
Describe Vedic Hinduism
Derives from the Vedas which are oral epics. They worshipped gods of sky and storm, had bronze weaponry. The warlike people saw themselves as natural masters and wanted to ensure than not all men are equal
Describe the hierarchy of Indian society under the caste
Top to bottom:
1. Brahmins- priests, scholars, intellects
2. Kshatrija- warriors, nobles
3. Vaishya- farmers, traders
4. Shudra- freemen, peasants, laborers
Caste system determined the lifestyles at birth along with the wealth and work of ones life. Castes were inevitable and weren't interchanged.
Decribe the social stratification in India began by the Aryans
Aryan conquest priest did not like the idea of a mixed society. To ensure that there was no progression in society they created the castes. This is because they did not want one to have the ability to climb social rank above them
How did Buddhism begin
began as an intellectual and emotional revolt against the emptiness of the Vedic ritualism
What does Mahayana Buddhism teach
Liberal form of Buddhism. Doctrines were viewed as required steps and encouraged the belief of many Buddhas (many ways to salvation)
Which factors led to the boom in India's trade
The export of Buddhism which taught that trade would benefit the welfare of everyone involved
What is the Eight Fold Path
Steps to good karma and how to ensure the relief of suffering
How do the adherents of Theravada Buddhism feel about divine mortals known as Bodhisatvas
They reject them and their beliefs of reincarnation of the Master. Theravadas were strict Buddhist.
In Hinduism the individual is finally incorporated into a world-soul by achieving a release known as
Why did many Indians become alienated from the early Hindu faith?
Alienated due to the caste system. The Brahmins at the time were Aryans, didn't include the idians in rituals or ceremonies.
In Buddhism, how is Nirvana, or release from suffering, achieved
by understanding that power is not desirable, you happiness is self-deceptive and by following the 8 fold path.
What would be the most accurate description of Chinese society during the Shang Dynasty
strictly hierarchical. There was a king with a warrior court. Towns held artians and small traders. Peasants lived in their own little villages.
How did the Yellow River help and hinder Chinese society
extensive floods were damaging/but was the region of civilization, had irrigation and terracing for farming
How was China different from other early civilization and why
China was isolated so all the customs and innovations were independently developed
Why was literacy rare in China
Because there were over 5000 logographs and knowing how to pair them along with memorizing them was complicated
What developments came from the damaging Yellow River floods
poitical unification through the development of levees that needed to be built
Why do we know more about Zhou than Shang
because they have an extensive literature that survived
In what way might a ruler lose the "mandate of heaven"?
by losing to a superior force or conspiracy
What was the idea of the mandate of heaven and why was it used
a theory during the Zhou in China emphasizing the connection between imperial government right to govern. It was used to justify the right to rule over the people (gods approve/support emperor)
How was the shang dynasty/society organized
hierarchical. There were many ranks organized and used military power to control the region
For what did the Chinese use oracle bones
to be told the determination of their welfare buy branding them and reading the cracks on the bones. early example of Chinese writing
During the Zhou period, how did peasants live
they were moderately prosperous and rarely ensalved
Most historians agree that China's greatest single cultural force was
Describe the pictographic writing of the Chinese
It was very complex and broad. Many symbols stood for more than one term and it was difficult to grasp.
What did Conficuous believe about the state
believed it should be like a harmonious family. Father as the head and each person with her or his duties (old over young)
Describe metal technology in China
advanced than most civilizations. Used the metal work for everyday items to weaponry made out of bronze, copper and cast iron
Which faith pursued a nature-base philosophy de-emphasizing the role of government
How did the power of the aristocracy increase as china expanded under the Zhou Dynasty
kings became more and more collective of their land and were gaining acquisition so they appoint local aristocrats- weakening the government
How large is Hindu religion
How large is Buddhist religion
3rd largest/farthest reaching and greatest cultural event ever
Longest poem ("the great story")
During Han Dynasty, how did Chinese feel about the west?
Little interest (felt superior)
During Han period , what did Confucian scholars lay greatest stress?
Education system (obedience of the people to the gov)
China's standardized test gave individuals government positions based on...
How to handle certain situations
Classical south india was influenced by what faiths?
Hinduism (mainly), Buddhism
Describe marriage in classical India
Polygamy & concubinage (arranged early by parents, economic/social affair)
Describe legal status of indian caste system
Describe divorce in Gupta
Rare among upper castes
Describe role of women in Indian society; at the time of Gupta
women were subordinate, more freedom in higher caste; child bearer
What was the most crucial development for Chinese national unity?
Great Wall of china
Why was development of wet rice farming significant to China?
Allowed China population to expand (without putting strain on economy, and provided jobs)
What was the reign of Tang Emperor Xuanxong especially notes for?
Brilliant epchos (expansion of Islamic caliphate/gov resulted in trade/prosperity; good poets &a literature)
What was the worst problem for Chinese governments?
In regards to government, educated Chinese long believed...
a single government center would work best
Name the significant scientific advances during Han dynasty
Canals, roads. Iron, wood pulp (math, geography, astronomy, stern post rudder, magnetic compass, paper, medicines)
What were the consequences of the Han dynasty's transportation improvements?
Merchants became poored (improved communication and commerce, unified economy)
What was the first Sue Dynasty's most effective agricultural reform?
Well field-reallocation of land
How could a student from a poor family complete training for a government position?
Villagers got together and supported and paid for the students tutoring and schooling
What is practice of Sati
ritual suicide of a wife after husband's death
China attained most of its current size and shape under what dynasty
Since when have Chinese recorded their
Shang dynasty; oracle bones
How did Shih Huang-di reunify china under his rule
military force and administrative organization
Huang-di based his gov. almost entirely off which philosophy?
Which developments attributed to Huang-di's reign?
Great wall, standardized script, one currency
Against who or what was the first Emperor's anti-knowledge campaign primarily directed?
Confusions/burning of books
Which occupations were of most value in Han?
Iron makers??? (Craftsmen and farmers)
Describe Han Chinese farming
Animal fertilizer and crushed bones, growing use of plow