Chapter 21- Nutrition and Digestion

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-eating food


-breaking down food into small molecules
-mechincal vs. chemical digestion


-taking up the products of digestion by cells lining the digestive system
-nutrients then move to the circulatory system


-releasing undigested material

alimentary canal

-complete digestive tract- tube from mouth to anus

accesory glands

-secrete digestive juices through ducts
-salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas


-alternating waves of contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle
-moves through esophagus and intestines


-regulates movement through parts of the digestive system
-ring-like band of muscle
-esophagus, stomach, rectum

oral cavity

-teeth, tongue, salivary glands
-mechanical and chemical digestion


-protects soft lining of the mouth and lubricates food
-buffers= neutralizes food acids and prevents tooth decay
-antibacterial agents= kill bacteria
-amylase= digestive enzyme, starch


-area in throat, openings to esophagus and trachea


-muscular tube, food from pharynx to stomach
-muscles at top= voluntary
-muscles at bottom= involuntary


-stores food:
has many folds so it can stretch
can hold up to 2 liters of food/drink
-chemical digestion


-muscular rings that regulate the passage of food

cardiac sphincter

esophagus to stomach

pyloric sphincter

stomach to small intestine

gastric juices

-protein digesting enzyme, mucus, and strong acid


chemically digests proteins


hormone that stimulate the secretion of gastric juice

small intestine

-finishes digeting large molecules and absorbs nutrients
-6 meters long


-first 25 cm of the small intestine
-material from the stomach mixes with digestive juices


produces pancreatic juice
-enzymes= breaks down complex sugars
-buffer= neutralize acid from stomach


produces bile
-bile salts= break up fats into droplets
-detoxies substances

gall bladder

stores bile
-hormone from duodenum= stimulates release of bile

small intestine

produces intestinal enzymes
-breaks down proteins and nucleic acids


finger-like projections within the inner wall


each villus has more tiny projections
-increases the surface area

large intestine

-A.K.A. the colon
-absorbs water
-forms feces
-absorbs vitamins B and K


where small and large intestines meet


extends from the cecum
-contains a mass of white blood cells


-body's energy currency (comes from glucose)

organic molecules

-building blocks to build the body's own molecules
-amino acids= proteins

essential nutrients

-nutrients you can't build for yourself
-4 types

essential fatty acids

-used to build cell membranes
-found in seeds, grains, veggies

essential amino acids

-20 different amino acids needed to build
-found in animal produce


-organic nutrients, small quantity needed


-not organic, small quantities needed

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