46 terms

chapter 20

what was the significance of columbus's voyages?
the significance of the voyages was that they brought together the peoples of europe,africa,and the americas
what was the importance of magellans crew completing the voyage?
the importance of the voyage his crew completed was that they were the first persons to circumnavigate the world
what factors helped the spanish defeat the aztec?
the factors that helped the spanish defeat the aztecs were the european diseases that killed millions,and the aztecs had not developed any natural immunity to european disease
how did the spanish treat the peoples they conquered?
the spanish treated the people they conquered badly by forcing them into a system call encomienda which made the natives farm, ranch, or mine for spanish lanlords
what was unique about the spanish colonization of the lands of new mexico?
the unique part about the spanish colonization of the lands of new mexico was that the missions, forts, and small ranches became the headquarters for advancing the catholic religion
what was the long-term consequence of the spanish abolishing the encomienda system?
the long-term consequence of this action was that the united states once again belonged to its original inhabitants for the next 12 years
what is a conquistador?
a conqueror
what is mestizo?
mixed spanish and native american population
what is the encomienda?
system that forced natives to farm, ranch, or mine for spanish landlords
in 1492, christopher columbus and his crew landed on an island in the caribbean sea named
San Salvador
lands that are controlled by another nation are called
after magellans death, his crew returned to spain in 1522 and became the first sailors to
sail around the world; circumnavigate
the first european settlers in the americas were the
cortes and others who sought riches in the americas were known as
the spanish explorer who conquered the inca was
Francisco Pizzaro
the mestizo population in the americas was a mixture of
spanish and native americans
the system of oppression used by the spanish against the native americans was called
europeans in the americas turned to africans for labor because native americans died of
disease,warfare, and brutal treatments
the first europeans to explore africa in the 1400s were the
the buying and selling of africans for work in the americas was called
the atlantic slave trade
the industry in the portuguese colony of brazil that demanded a high number of laborers, often captured africans
Sugar industry
the leading carrier of enslaved africans until 1807 was
the transatlantic trading network that transported enslaved persons was known as
triangular trade
the voyage of captured africans to the west indies and north and south america was called the
middle passage
an enslaved person who wrote about the inhumane treatment of captured africans
olaudah equiano
a violent uprising of a group of slaves in south carolina in 1739
stono rebellion
besides breaking up families and bringing about the deaths of thousands of africans in the americas , the slave trade devastated africa by introducing these to the continents
africans survived a life of slavery in america by relying on their own
these parts of african culture continue to influence the american continent today
art, religion, music and food
the global transfer of foods, plants and animals during the colonization of the americas
the columbian exchange
new plants that came to the americas from europe, asia,and africa
turnip, sugar cane, peach, grape, pear, and olive
the two most important food items that were exported from the americas
corn and potatoes
an unwelcome part of the transatlantic trade to the americas
an economic system based on private ownereship and investment of resources for profit
a steady rise in the price of goods
a business venture that involved a number of people combining their wealth for a common purpose
joint stock company
a country establishes this by selling more goods than it buys
favorable balance of trade
the economic revolution in europe spurred the growth of these two things
towns and the rise of a class of merchants who controlled great wealth
french explorers controlled these colonies
new france in quebec
the english controlled these colonies
jamestown on the coast of virginia and new york
the pilgrims controlled this colony
plymouth in massachusetts
the dutch controlled this colony
new netherland
the portuguese controlled this colony
the incan ruler who commanded a force of about 30,000 men
the war between the french and british over land claims in the ohio valley, the british won and the french surredered their north american holdings
french and indian war
native american ruler also known as king phillip who led an attack pn colonial villages throughout massachusetts