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Renaissance and Reformation
Terms in this set (27)
Known as the father of humanism
Pursued a literary career instead of being a lawyer. Disobeyed his father
He was the 1st to identify Middle Ages as Dark Ages
His famous writings include idea to his love Laura
Born in 1304 in Arezzo near Florence. Died in 1374
Inspired by Ancient Greek and Roman ideals
Emphasized the use of pure Classical Latin, making it fashionable for humanist to use Cicero as a model for prose and Virgil for poetry
Petrarch was a staunch admirer of classical philosophy and a follower of Christianity. He constantly tried to combine both in his literary works. He strongly believed that humans have enormous intellectual powers and it is their duty to use their abilities to their fullest. He was highly introspective and believed in moral and practical importance of learning history and ancient literature
Did more than anyone in 14th century to foster the development of Renaissance humanism
Renaissance occurred from the early 14th century to the late 16th century.
The invention of the Gutenberg printing press in 1450 is a milestone which marks the beginning of the Renaissance. Ideas were able to be spread quicker and farther because of the printing press. It allowed communication to occur through all of Europe.
The Renaissance was a time of great beauty and art. Artists like Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo created greats works of art during this time. Writers like William Shakespeare were producing their own masterpieces.
It was also a time of creativity, imagination and curiosity
The Renaissance was the age of exploration. The voyages of many great explorers like Columbus, Vespucci, Ponce de Leon, Polo, De Soto and Balboa occurred during the Renaissance.
The word 'renaissance' is a French word which means 'rebirth'. The people credited with beginning the Renaissance were trying to recreate the classical models of Ancient Greek and Rome.
The Renaissance was a time when Venice was the world's busiest seaport and Florence was the heart of great art.
At the beginning of the Renaissance, Italy was the center of world culture. Genoa, Milan, Venice, Rome, Verona and Florence were economic, trade and financial leaders for Europe.
There were changes in thinking during Renaissance. New ideas in art, science, astronomy, religion, literature, mathematics, philosophy, and politics were developed and advanced.
The influence of the Renaissance impacted and shaped the future. The changes that happened led to a modern era.
One of the institutions that began to decline was the Catholic Church. Religion was still important, however. New religions and ways of thinking were being discussed. Martin Luther had broken away from the Catholic Church and was spreading the Protestant religion throughout Europe.
An intellectual movement based on classical literary works of Greek and Rome
Humanist studied grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy, ethics and history based on Greek and Roman authors
Humanist were teachers in secondary schools and universities, held positions as professors, secretaries and they were chancellors of Italian city's or courts
Believed that an individual only grows to maturity through intellectuality and morality
Renaissance humanists believed that the liberal arts (art, music, grammar, rhetoric, oratory, history, poetry, using classical texts, and the studies of all of the above) should be practiced by all levels of "richness"
Humanists believe everything in life has determinate nature but man can choose his or her owns nature
Civic humanism was the belief that humanites should be put to the service of the state
Petrach, Leonardo Bruni and Erasmus were famous Renaissance humanists
Renaissance humanism began in Florence in late 14th century
Through scholasticism, humanist believe man can restore themselves
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a feudal monarchy that encompassed present-day Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria, the Czech and Slovak Republics, as well as parts of eastern France, northern Italy, Slovenia, and western Poland at the start of the early modern centuries
On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe after more than three centuries
Charles V was a Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria who inherited a Spanish and Habsburg empire extending across Europe from Spain and the Netherlands to Austria and the Kingdom of Naples and reaching overseas to Spanish America. He struggled to hold his empire together against the growing forces of Protestantism, increasing Ottoman and French pressure, and even hostility from the pope
Charles V is best known for his role in opposing the Protestant Reformation, Charles pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation. The Society of Jesus was established by St. Ignatius of Loyola during Charles's reign in order to peacefully and intellectually combat Protestantism, and continental Spain was spared from religious conflict largely by Charles's nonviolent measures
Pope Leo III laid the foundation for the Holy Roman Empire in A.D. 800 when he crowned Charlemagne as emperor. This act set a precedent for the next 700 years, as the Popes claimed the right to select and install the most powerful rulers on the Continent.
The Holy Roman Empire officially began in 962 when Pope John XII crowned King Otto I of Germany and gave him the title of "emperor." In the Holy Roman Empire, civil authority and church authority clashed at times, but the church usually won
In The Holy Roman Empire catholic Popes wielded the most influence
The Holy Roman Empire served as the government over much of Europe for the majority of medieval history
The Holy Roman Empire was on the decline after the Reformation period, the Church's imperial influenced waned and Europe began to emerge from the Middle Ages
Late in the period of the Holy Roman Empire, a growing number of Christians grew uneasy with the dominance, teaching, and corruption of the Roman Catholic Church. In the 1500s, Martin Luther launched the Protestant Reformation. John Calvin became a Reformation leader based in Geneva, Switzerland, and others, including Ulrich Zwingli and a large Anabaptist movement, helped reform religion in the Western world.
Religious leaders were critical of secular ideals
Ideas that the human life was worth living and should not consist of preparation for the next life
Secular spirit was shown in art with the display of anatomy, nature and scenery
The use of logic instead of faith
More focus on their lives on Earth instead of their future in heaven or hell
Religion was not lost, it was just a shift towards other customs that didn't involve God
Human affairs were not considered distasteful and were believed to deserve admiration
Obsession with the achievements of man
Secular views made it more common to go against the Church
People began to not be so reliant on the Church and believe everything it said. People made it a priority to interpret things for themselves
A Dutch Scholar
His translation to Greek of the New Testament brought on a theological revolution
The most influential of all the Christian humanists, he formulated and popularized the reform program of Christian humanism
The Handbook of The Christian Knight, printed in 1503, reflected his preoccupation with religion.
He called his conception of religion the philosophy of Christ by which he meant that Christianity should be a guiding philosophy for the direction of daily life rather than the system of dogmatic beliefs and practices that the medieval church seemed to stress
His work helped prepare the way for the Reformation.
"Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched"
Erasmus disapproved of Luther and Protestant reformers, he had no intention of destroying the unity of the medieval Christian church
He sought to restore Christianity to the early simplicity found in the teachings of Jesus
Had an appreciation for classical latin and christianity
William Shakespeare was a [1564-1616]. English poet and playwright, the foremost figure in English Literature and a primary influence on the development of especially the literary language
Shakespeare wrote plays and poems. His plays were comedies, histories and tragedies. His 17 comedies include A Midsummer Night's Dream and The Merry Wives of Windsor. Among his 10 history plays are Henry V and Richard III. The most famous among his 10 tragedies are Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear
William Shakespeare is believed to have influenced the English language more than any other writer in history
Shakespeare disappears from the historical record between 1585, when his twins' baptism was recorded, and 1592, when the playwright Robert Greene denounced him in a pamphlet as an "upstart crow."
William Shakespeare was born in 1564, but his exact birthdate is unknown. He was baptized on April 26 of that year, so his birth would have been shortly before
In 1594, Shakespeare became one of the founders of Lord Chamberlain's Men, an acting/theater group that soon became the leading player's company in London
Though the printing press existed and books were being mass-produced all over Europe, Shakespeare had little interest in seeing his plays in print. He'd written them not to be read, but to be performed on stage
Because they were often hastily written for performance on stage, none of Shakespeare's original manuscripts exist
Shakespeare's was said to have an extensive vocabulary his works contained more than 30,000 different words
He died in 1616. The words "Curst be he that moves my bones" were inscribed on his grave
Thomas More was born in London and lived from 1478 to 1535. He was a lawyer, humanist, statesman and author as well as advisor to Henry VIII.
He is famous for writing Utopia, published in 1516, about the political system on an imaginary island. The name has been used to describe a perfect society ever since, and Utopia is one of the most influential books ever written
More studied at Oxford University, where he learned Latin, wrote comedies and studied Greek literature. He then studied law before standing for election to Parliament in 1504. He represented Great Yarmouth and then London
More held many political titles. He was an Undersheriff of the City of London, Master of Requests, a member of the Privy Council, Speaker of the House of Commons. In 1529, he succeeded Thomas Wolsey as Chancellor
He was a devout man and spent many hours in prayer and private devotions, contemporaries praised his household as a shining model of Christian family life
When Henry VIII split from the Catholic Church, More refused to recognize him as the Supreme Head of the Church. More was found guilty of treason and he was beheaded on 6th July 1535. He was 57 years old
Thomas More was made a saint in 1935. In 2000, he was declared by Pope John Paul II to be the Patron of Statesmen and Politicians
Thomas More also wrote many letters, some of which can be seen in museums today. He wrote to his friends, his children, to other scholars and to government officials
Before More died he told the court that he could not go against his conscience and wished his judges that "we may yet hereafter in heaven merrily all meet together to everlasting salvation."
More opposed the Protestant Reformation, in particular the theology of Martin Luther and William Tyndale
One of Spain's most famous writers, Miguel de Cervantes created one of the world's greatest literary masterpieces, Don Quixote, in the early 1600s
Miguel de Cervantes was born near Madrid in 1547. He became a soldier in 1570 and was badly wounded in the Battle of Lepanto. Captured by the Turks in 1575, de Cervantes spent five years in prison. He was freed in 1580 and returned home
Cervantes' influence on the Spanish language cannot be underestimated, in fact it is often called la lengua de Cervantes ("the language of Cervantes")
Don Quixote was about the adventures of a nameless hidalgo who reads so many chivalric romances that he loses his sanity and decides to set out to revive chivalry, undo wrongs, and bring justice to the world, under the name Don Quixote
Returning to Madrid, Cervantes started writing. Even though he is thought to have written as many as 30 plays, only two survived today
In 1569 Cervantes moved to Rome where he worked as chamber assistant of a cardinal. He then enlisted as a soldier in a Spanish Navy infantry regiment and continued his military life until 1575, when he was captured by Barbary pirates
He worked as a purchasing agent for the Spanish Armada, and later as a tax collector. In 1597 discrepancies in his accounts for three years previous landed him in the Crown Jail of Seville
His first published poem was about the death of Phillip II's young queen, Elizabeth of Valois
Back in Spain, Cervantes spent most of the rest of his life in a manner that contrasted entirely with his decade of action and danger. He would be constantly short of money and in tedious and exacting employment
Very little is known about Cervantes' early childhood, however we do know that he was a favorite student of Madrid humanist Juan Lopez
Lorenzo de Medici
Lorenzo de' Medici was Florentine statesman, ruler and patron of arts and letters
Lorenzo's patronage of the arts was renowned, and those under his protection included Botticelli and Leonardo da Vinci
Lorenzo enjoyed the best education available, learning Greek, Latin, and philosophy, both formally, in rigorous sessions with teachers, and informally, in the company of humanists and statesmen. While still a youth, he began to write sonnets and other poems, usually about love
Piero died on Dec. 5, 1469, and 2 days later the 20-year-old Lorenzo was asked by a delegation of eminent citizens to take control of the state. This he did, ruling as his father and grandfather had done, from behind the scenes and without holding any public office
Lorenzo essentially ruled Florence through influence, threats, bribes, underlings on the city council, and his own personal army
Lorenzo's court included artists such as Piero and Antonio del Pollaiuolo, Andrea del Verrocchio, Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, and Michelangelo Buonarroti who were involved in the 15th-century Renaissance. Although he did not commission many works himself, he helped them secure commissions from other patrons. Michelangelo lived with Lorenzo and his family for five years, dining at the family table and participating in the discussions
Lorenzo was also known as a great poet.
Was known as Lorenzo the magnificent
Lorenzo de' Medici died during the late night of 8 April or during the early morning of 9 April 1492
In his poetry he celebrates life even while—particularly in his later works—acknowledging with melancholy the fragility and instability of the human condition. Love, feasts and light dominate his verse
Cosimo de Medici
founder of one of the main lines of the Medici family that ruled Florence from 1434 to 1537.
Cosimo was initiated into affairs of high finance in the corridors of the Council of Constance, where he represented the Medici bank
Cosimo managed he papacy's finances and in 1462 filled his coffers to overflowing by obtaining from Pius II the Tolfa alum mines monopoly, alum being indispensable to Florence's famed textile industry
He was one of wealthiest men in his time
He dedicated his life to support middle class and he wanted to bring culture
He was the most religious out of all the Medici's
He expanded the bank and influence on politics
Due to him Florence became a cultural center
Cosimo also adopted the policy, already traditional in his family, of supporting the lesser guilds and the poor against the wealthy aristocracy which ruled the city
Cosimo reformed the system of taxation to a graduated one
Catherine of Aragon
Catherine of Aragon was born in Madrid, Spain in 1485. Her father was Ferdinand II of Aragon and her mother was Isabella I of Castille
Catherine was married to Arthur Tudor, Henry VIII's older brother. When Arthur died and Henry VIII became King of England, Henry and Catherine married.
Catherine was thought to have long red hair and blue eyes. She was apparently very beautiful
Catherine was 23 when she married Henry VIII. Henry was nearly 18.
During her marriage to Henry VIII, Catherine was pregnant six times. Unfortunately, only one of these pregnancies resulted in a child who survived beyond infancy (Mary I).
Henry VIII became attracted to Anne Boleyn, one of Catherine's ladies-in-waiting. He set about trying to get the marriage annulled.
The Pope refused to annul the marriage and this led to the break from the Roman Catholic Church. Archbishop Cranmer ruled the marriage between Henry and Catherine to be null and void in 1533.
Catherine was sent away from the Royal Court. Her rooms were given to Anne Boleyn, and Catherine lived out the rest of her life in The More castle and then Kimbolton Castle.
Catherine died on 7th January 1536. She was buried in Peterborough Cathederal. Henry VIII did not attend and their daughter, Mary (later Mary I) was prevented from attending
Mother is Queen Isabella I of Castile
Indulgences granted full or partial remission of the punishment of sin
Popes used the money gained from indulgences for luxuries
One of the main reasons why Luther challenged the Catholic Church
It went against the bible and its teachings
One of the corruptions of the Catholic Church
Was a form of penance
In the council of Trent it was decided that indulgences were considered unlawful
Poor Leo X used indulgences to get people to donate to the construction of St. Peter's basilica
Indulgences were often practiced
(in Roman Catholic doctrine) a place or state of suffering inhabited by the souls of sinners who are expiating their sins before going to heaven
King Henry rejected purgatory which caused him to fight with pope clement vii
Pope Leo X
Born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici into the fabulously wealthy and powerful de' Medici bloodline of Florence.
In March 1489 at the age of just 13, his father Lorenzo de' Medici purchased the position of Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica from Pope Innocent VIII (1484-1492) who in turn also married his son Franceschetto Battista Cibo to Maddalena de' Medici.
In 1492, at the death of his father, Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici at just 17 returned to Florence to manage the families massive trade empire. The following year, (1493) his son Giulio de' Medici, later Pope Clement VII (1523-1534) was born- historically listed as being born 1478 and to the brother of Giovanni who was Guiliano.
In 1494 during the events known as the Pazzi Conspiracy, Guiliano was assassinated in an attack on the de' Medici. Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici and his family escaped finding sanctuary at Venice and Urbino.
Borrowed and spent heavily
Granted indulgences to those who donated to the construction of St. Peter basilica
Challenged by Martin Luther with his 95 Theses
He is the last pope not to have been in priestly orders at the time of his election to the papacy
Under his reign, progress was made on the rebuilding of Saint Peter's Basilica and artists such as Raphael decorated the Vatican rooms. Leo also reorganised the Roman University
Introduced printing press to Europe
German blacksmith, goldsmith and printer
Given credit for inventing the first press capable of mass-producing movable type using oil-based ink on wooden printing
Gutenberg was exiled after having a heated argument with two archbishops
Responsible for the bible being easily accessible
Born in 1398
Died February 3, 1468
Gutenberg's press worked by first hammering a hard metal punch (with the letter carved back to front) into soft metal copper
Gutenberg was never monetarily rewarded for his innovations during his lifetime
Granted Martin Luther safe passage to the Diet of Worms
He signed the Edict of Worms which declared Martin Luther an outlaw
He attacked Rome and captured the pope
He Started the religious reformation
He defeated the Ottoman Turks during the siege of Vienna
A holy roman emperor
Charles is best known for his role in opposing the Protestant Reformation.Several German princes abandoned the Catholic Church and formed the Schmalkaldic League in order to challenge Charles's authority with military force
Charles pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation
Charles was a lover of peace
On 10 March 1526, Charles married his first cousin Isabella of Portugal, sister of John III of Portugal
German Peasants War
War between German princes and German rebels
The peasants were inspired by Martin Luther's words of priesthood of all believers
Martin Luther sided with the German princes because he believed in order
Lasted from 1524 to 1525
It was Europe's largest uproar prior to the French Revolution
It ended up failing
the oldest Protestant tradition.
Martin Luther issued the "Disputation of Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences" that became known as his "95 Theses" in Wittenberg on Oct. 31, 1517.
Lutherans went viral nearly 500 years ago, when Martin Luther and his allies used the new media of the day -- pamphlets, ballads and woodcuts -- and circulated them through social networks to promote their message of the reformation of the church.
Following the practice of naming a "heresy" after its leader, the name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used by Johann Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519.
Rather than "Lutheran," Martin Luther preferred to describe the reformation as "evangelical," which is derived from the Greek word meaning "good news."
Generally speaking Lutheran teaching can be summed up by "Three Solas": (1) Grace Alone; (2) Faith Alone; (3) Scripture Alone.
The split between the Lutherans and the Roman Catholics began with the Edict of Worms in 1521, which officially excommunicated Luther and all of his followers
Luther's Small Catechism ("Der Kleine Catechisms") was published in 1529 for the teaching of children at home by their parents.
Luther's Large Catechism consisted of works addressed particularly to clergymen to aid them in teaching their congregations
The Book of Concord or "Concordia" (1580) contains documents that explain what Lutherans believe. It includes the three creeds of the ancient church and Reformation writings such as Luther's Small and Large Catechisms, and the Formula of Concord
members of a radical movement of the 16th-century Reformation
viewed baptism as an external witness to a believer's conscious profession of faith
disapproved the baptism of infants
believed in the separation of church from state
they shunned nonbelievers
Lived as if they were above society
We're massacred for their beliefs
He was born on 10 July 1509 in Noyon, Picardy, France
He was theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation
He was the main figure in the development of the Christian theology later called Calvinism.
In 1536 he published the first edition of his work "Institutes of the Christian Religion"
He died on 27 May 1564 in Geneva, Switzerland
From an early age, Calvin was a precocious student who excelled at Latin and philosophy
Calvin wrote his magnum opus, The Institutes of the Christian Religion, at the age of 27
During his ministry in Geneva, Calvin preached over two thousand sermons. He preached twice on Sunday and almost every weekday. His sermons lasted more than an hour and he did not use notes
Calvin initially had no interest in being a pastor
Calvin was a stepfather (he married a widow, Idelette, who had two children) but had no surviving children himself
Leonardo Da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci's full name is Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci was the son of a lawyer and a peasant woman, and was born on 15 April 1452, in Italy and died at the age of 67 on 2 May 1519 in France.
Leonardo da Vinci is known as a 'polymath', a person who has significant ability and knowledge in a wide variety of fields, with skills in art, mathematics, engineering and science, such as human anatomy, botany and geology.
Leonardo da Vinci became an apprentice under Verrocchio (Andrea di Cione) the artist, at fourteen years of age and became a qualified master artist at the age of 20.
Leonardo da Vinci is often thought to be one of the most outstanding painters in history and the most remarkable polymath of all time
Leonardo da Vinci created notable invention concepts for vehicles, such as helicopters and bicycles, calculators and concentrated solar power.
On 5 August 1473, Leonardo da Vinci created an artwork named 'Arno Valley', with pen and ink mediums and this is his earliest known drawing.
Leonardo da Vinci was left handed and mostly wrote in mirror reversed cursive writing, and during his life-time he wrote and recorded 13,000 pages of notes and complex diagrams
Leonardo da Vinci is known as an artist throughout the world for his famous paintings like the 'Mona Lisa', 'The Last Supper' and the 'Virgin of the Rocks'
Some of Leonardo da Vinci's machine designs were physically constructed and tested for a documentary for the Channel Four British television station in 2003.
Flemish painter who perfected the newly developed technique of oil painting
His naturalistic panel paintings, mostly portraits and religious subjects, made extensive use of disguised religious symbols
His masterpiece is the altarpiece in the cathedral at Ghent, the Adoration of the Lamb (also called Ghent Altarpiece, 1432)
Traditionally, Jan has been acclaimed the founder of Flemish painting, and scholars have sought his artistic roots in the last great phase of medieval manuscript illumination
Hubert Van Eck was thought to be his brother
Jan's works have been copied frequently and have been avidly collected. He is referred to in the Treaty of Versailles, which specifies the return of the Ghent Altarpiece to Belgium before peace with Germany could be concluded after the end of World War I
Van Eyck's date of birth is unclear, c.1395 or sometime before this date is widely accepted as a best guess
All of the known works of Jan Van Eyck are from the period within his service to Philip of Burgundy. He was a learned man who spoke Latin, he was also well versed in the classics
The artist remained as well respected member of the court of Burgundy until his death in 1441.
Born in Florence, Italy, around 1386, sculptor Donatello apprenticed early with well-known sculptors and quickly learned the Gothic style
Before he was 20, he was receiving commissions for his work
Over his career he developed a style of lifelike, highly emotional sculptures and a reputation second only to Michelangelo's
Donatello's David was the first free nude statue since ancient Greece and Rome
His style incorporated the new science of perspective, which allowed the sculptor to create figures that occupied measurable space
He's the inventor of the stiacciato technique
His artistic training started in a goldsmith's workshop and it continued in the studio of Lorenzo Ghiberti
His most famous work was his bronze David
Donatello, was born in 1386 in Florence
Though we refer to him as Michelangelo his full name was Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni.
Michelangelo was raised in Florence.
Michelangelo's mother died when he was only six.
Michelangelo was the second oldest of five boys: Lionardo (b. 1473) (Michelangelo born 1475) Buonarroto (b. 1477) Giovansimone (b. 1479) Gismondo (b.1481)
Michelangelo sculpted David and Pieta, designed a dome for St. Peter's Basilica, and painted frescos on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel all before he was 30 years old.
Michelangelo was created the greatest living artist of his time.
Michelangelo spent four years working on the dome of the Sistine Chapel. He stood on a scaffold and painted over his head, unlike the popular belief that he painted while laying down.
Michelangelo died in Rome in 1564. His remains were secretly returned to Florence and interred at the Basilica of Santa Croce, according to his wishes.
Michelangelo was hit in the nose as a teenager by Pietro Torrigiano, a fellow art student at an art academy in Florence. The incident left him with a permanently crooked nose.
In his old age Michelangelo nearly lived as a hermit rarely coming into contact with others except when his work brought contact about. He lived in squalor despite being rich.
Henry VIII was King of England from 1509 to 1547
most well-known for having six wives and for being very over-weight towards the end of his reign
Henry received an excellent education from some of the best tutors in Europe.
He was fluent in Latin and French and he could speak some Ancient Greek and Spanish.
Henry's mother, Elizabeth of York, died when he was eleven years old.
Henry wasn't expected to become King of England, but when his brother Arthur died in 1502 at the age of 15, Henry was next in line for the throne.
Henry VIII separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church in 1534, using the Act of Supremacy to declare himself the head of the Church of England
Henry VIII had six wives - Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard and Catherine Parr
Founder of Anglican church
Elizabeth I reigned as Queen of England from 17th November 1558 to 24th March 1603. Her reign is sometimes known as the Elizabethan Age, and was the era of William Shakespeare's plays
Queen Elizabeth I never married and never had any children. For this reason, she is sometimes known as The Virgin Queen
Queen Elizabeth I is sometimes pictured as wearing thick white makeup. Although this look was apparently fashionable at the time, Elizabeth did it to cover up scars left from a bout of smallpox
Elizabeth was born on 7th September 1533 and became Queen at the age of 25. She reigned for 44 years and 127 days. She is the monarch with the eighth longest reign, and the third longest of any female monarch
Elizabeth could understand several languages: English, Latin, Greek, Italian, French, Spanish, Welsh and apparently even Cornish, a language which is now only spoken by about 2,000 people in Cornwall
Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII by second wife
When Elizabeth was two years and eight months old, her mother was executed on 19 May 1536
Elizabeth was the only child of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
On January 15, 1559, Elizabeth I was crowned Queen by Owen Oglethorpe, bishop of Carlisle at Westminster Abbey, a little less than two months after the death of Mary I
Elizabeth died on March 24, 1603 at Richmond Palace and was succeeded by James I (James VI of Scotland), the son of Mary, Queen of Scots. The Tudor dynasty ended and passed to the Stuarts
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