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Renaissance and Reformation

Terms in this set (27)

Renaissance occurred from the early 14th century to the late 16th century.

The invention of the Gutenberg printing press in 1450 is a milestone which marks the beginning of the Renaissance. Ideas were able to be spread quicker and farther because of the printing press. It allowed communication to occur through all of Europe.

The Renaissance was a time of great beauty and art. Artists like Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo created greats works of art during this time. Writers like William Shakespeare were producing their own masterpieces.
It was also a time of creativity, imagination and curiosity

The Renaissance was the age of exploration. The voyages of many great explorers like Columbus, Vespucci, Ponce de Leon, Polo, De Soto and Balboa occurred during the Renaissance.

The word 'renaissance' is a French word which means 'rebirth'. The people credited with beginning the Renaissance were trying to recreate the classical models of Ancient Greek and Rome.

The Renaissance was a time when Venice was the world's busiest seaport and Florence was the heart of great art.

At the beginning of the Renaissance, Italy was the center of world culture. Genoa, Milan, Venice, Rome, Verona and Florence were economic, trade and financial leaders for Europe.

There were changes in thinking during Renaissance. New ideas in art, science, astronomy, religion, literature, mathematics, philosophy, and politics were developed and advanced.

The influence of the Renaissance impacted and shaped the future. The changes that happened led to a modern era.

One of the institutions that began to decline was the Catholic Church. Religion was still important, however. New religions and ways of thinking were being discussed. Martin Luther had broken away from the Catholic Church and was spreading the Protestant religion throughout Europe.
The Holy Roman Empire was a feudal monarchy that encompassed present-day Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Austria, the Czech and Slovak Republics, as well as parts of eastern France, northern Italy, Slovenia, and western Poland at the start of the early modern centuries

On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe after more than three centuries

Charles V was a Holy Roman Emperor and Archduke of Austria who inherited a Spanish and Habsburg empire extending across Europe from Spain and the Netherlands to Austria and the Kingdom of Naples and reaching overseas to Spanish America. He struggled to hold his empire together against the growing forces of Protestantism, increasing Ottoman and French pressure, and even hostility from the pope

Charles V is best known for his role in opposing the Protestant Reformation, Charles pushed for the convocation of the Council of Trent, which began the Counter-Reformation. The Society of Jesus was established by St. Ignatius of Loyola during Charles's reign in order to peacefully and intellectually combat Protestantism, and continental Spain was spared from religious conflict largely by Charles's nonviolent measures

Pope Leo III laid the foundation for the Holy Roman Empire in A.D. 800 when he crowned Charlemagne as emperor. This act set a precedent for the next 700 years, as the Popes claimed the right to select and install the most powerful rulers on the Continent.

The Holy Roman Empire officially began in 962 when Pope John XII crowned King Otto I of Germany and gave him the title of "emperor." In the Holy Roman Empire, civil authority and church authority clashed at times, but the church usually won

In The Holy Roman Empire catholic Popes wielded the most influence

The Holy Roman Empire served as the government over much of Europe for the majority of medieval history

The Holy Roman Empire was on the decline after the Reformation period, the Church's imperial influenced waned and Europe began to emerge from the Middle Ages

Late in the period of the Holy Roman Empire, a growing number of Christians grew uneasy with the dominance, teaching, and corruption of the Roman Catholic Church. In the 1500s, Martin Luther launched the Protestant Reformation. John Calvin became a Reformation leader based in Geneva, Switzerland, and others, including Ulrich Zwingli and a large Anabaptist movement, helped reform religion in the Western world.
William Shakespeare was a [1564-1616]. English poet and playwright, the foremost figure in English Literature and a primary influence on the development of especially the literary language

Shakespeare wrote plays and poems. His plays were comedies, histories and tragedies. His 17 comedies include A Midsummer Night's Dream and The Merry Wives of Windsor. Among his 10 history plays are Henry V and Richard III. The most famous among his 10 tragedies are Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear

William Shakespeare is believed to have influenced the English language more than any other writer in history

Shakespeare disappears from the historical record between 1585, when his twins' baptism was recorded, and 1592, when the playwright Robert Greene denounced him in a pamphlet as an "upstart crow."

William Shakespeare was born in 1564, but his exact birthdate is unknown. He was baptized on April 26 of that year, so his birth would have been shortly before

In 1594, Shakespeare became one of the founders of Lord Chamberlain's Men, an acting/theater group that soon became the leading player's company in London

Though the printing press existed and books were being mass-produced all over Europe, Shakespeare had little interest in seeing his plays in print. He'd written them not to be read, but to be performed on stage

Because they were often hastily written for performance on stage, none of Shakespeare's original manuscripts exist

Shakespeare's was said to have an extensive vocabulary his works contained more than 30,000 different words

He died in 1616. The words "Curst be he that moves my bones" were inscribed on his grave
Thomas More was born in London and lived from 1478 to 1535. He was a lawyer, humanist, statesman and author as well as advisor to Henry VIII.

He is famous for writing Utopia, published in 1516, about the political system on an imaginary island. The name has been used to describe a perfect society ever since, and Utopia is one of the most influential books ever written

More studied at Oxford University, where he learned Latin, wrote comedies and studied Greek literature. He then studied law before standing for election to Parliament in 1504. He represented Great Yarmouth and then London

More held many political titles. He was an Undersheriff of the City of London, Master of Requests, a member of the Privy Council, Speaker of the House of Commons. In 1529, he succeeded Thomas Wolsey as Chancellor

He was a devout man and spent many hours in prayer and private devotions, contemporaries praised his household as a shining model of Christian family life

When Henry VIII split from the Catholic Church, More refused to recognize him as the Supreme Head of the Church. More was found guilty of treason and he was beheaded on 6th July 1535. He was 57 years old

Thomas More was made a saint in 1935. In 2000, he was declared by Pope John Paul II to be the Patron of Statesmen and Politicians

Thomas More also wrote many letters, some of which can be seen in museums today. He wrote to his friends, his children, to other scholars and to government officials

Before More died he told the court that he could not go against his conscience and wished his judges that "we may yet hereafter in heaven merrily all meet together to everlasting salvation."

More opposed the Protestant Reformation, in particular the theology of Martin Luther and William Tyndale
One of Spain's most famous writers, Miguel de Cervantes created one of the world's greatest literary masterpieces, Don Quixote, in the early 1600s

Miguel de Cervantes was born near Madrid in 1547. He became a soldier in 1570 and was badly wounded in the Battle of Lepanto. Captured by the Turks in 1575, de Cervantes spent five years in prison. He was freed in 1580 and returned home

Cervantes' influence on the Spanish language cannot be underestimated, in fact it is often called la lengua de Cervantes ("the language of Cervantes")

Don Quixote was about the adventures of a nameless hidalgo who reads so many chivalric romances that he loses his sanity and decides to set out to revive chivalry, undo wrongs, and bring justice to the world, under the name Don Quixote

Returning to Madrid, Cervantes started writing. Even though he is thought to have written as many as 30 plays, only two survived today

In 1569 Cervantes moved to Rome where he worked as chamber assistant of a cardinal. He then enlisted as a soldier in a Spanish Navy infantry regiment and continued his military life until 1575, when he was captured by Barbary pirates

He worked as a purchasing agent for the Spanish Armada, and later as a tax collector. In 1597 discrepancies in his accounts for three years previous landed him in the Crown Jail of Seville

His first published poem was about the death of Phillip II's young queen, Elizabeth of Valois

Back in Spain, Cervantes spent most of the rest of his life in a manner that contrasted entirely with his decade of action and danger. He would be constantly short of money and in tedious and exacting employment

Very little is known about Cervantes' early childhood, however we do know that he was a favorite student of Madrid humanist Juan Lopez
Lorenzo de' Medici was Florentine statesman, ruler and patron of arts and letters

Lorenzo's patronage of the arts was renowned, and those under his protection included Botticelli and Leonardo da Vinci

Lorenzo enjoyed the best education available, learning Greek, Latin, and philosophy, both formally, in rigorous sessions with teachers, and informally, in the company of humanists and statesmen. While still a youth, he began to write sonnets and other poems, usually about love

Piero died on Dec. 5, 1469, and 2 days later the 20-year-old Lorenzo was asked by a delegation of eminent citizens to take control of the state. This he did, ruling as his father and grandfather had done, from behind the scenes and without holding any public office

Lorenzo essentially ruled Florence through influence, threats, bribes, underlings on the city council, and his own personal army

Lorenzo's court included artists such as Piero and Antonio del Pollaiuolo, Andrea del Verrocchio, Leonardo da Vinci, Sandro Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio, and Michelangelo Buonarroti who were involved in the 15th-century Renaissance. Although he did not commission many works himself, he helped them secure commissions from other patrons. Michelangelo lived with Lorenzo and his family for five years, dining at the family table and participating in the discussions

Lorenzo was also known as a great poet.

Was known as Lorenzo the magnificent

Lorenzo de' Medici died during the late night of 8 April or during the early morning of 9 April 1492

In his poetry he celebrates life even while—particularly in his later works—acknowledging with melancholy the fragility and instability of the human condition. Love, feasts and light dominate his verse
the oldest Protestant tradition.

Martin Luther issued the "Disputation of Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences" that became known as his "95 Theses" in Wittenberg on Oct. 31, 1517.

Lutherans went viral nearly 500 years ago, when Martin Luther and his allies used the new media of the day -- pamphlets, ballads and woodcuts -- and circulated them through social networks to promote their message of the reformation of the church.

Following the practice of naming a "heresy" after its leader, the name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used by Johann Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519.

Rather than "Lutheran," Martin Luther preferred to describe the reformation as "evangelical," which is derived from the Greek word meaning "good news."

Generally speaking Lutheran teaching can be summed up by "Three Solas": (1) Grace Alone; (2) Faith Alone; (3) Scripture Alone.

The split between the Lutherans and the Roman Catholics began with the Edict of Worms in 1521, which officially excommunicated Luther and all of his followers

Luther's Small Catechism ("Der Kleine Catechisms") was published in 1529 for the teaching of children at home by their parents.

Luther's Large Catechism consisted of works addressed particularly to clergymen to aid them in teaching their congregations

The Book of Concord or "Concordia" (1580) contains documents that explain what Lutherans believe. It includes the three creeds of the ancient church and Reformation writings such as Luther's Small and Large Catechisms, and the Formula of Concord
Leonardo da Vinci's full name is Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci was the son of a lawyer and a peasant woman, and was born on 15 April 1452, in Italy and died at the age of 67 on 2 May 1519 in France.

Leonardo da Vinci is known as a 'polymath', a person who has significant ability and knowledge in a wide variety of fields, with skills in art, mathematics, engineering and science, such as human anatomy, botany and geology.

Leonardo da Vinci became an apprentice under Verrocchio (Andrea di Cione) the artist, at fourteen years of age and became a qualified master artist at the age of 20.

Leonardo da Vinci is often thought to be one of the most outstanding painters in history and the most remarkable polymath of all time

Leonardo da Vinci created notable invention concepts for vehicles, such as helicopters and bicycles, calculators and concentrated solar power.

On 5 August 1473, Leonardo da Vinci created an artwork named 'Arno Valley', with pen and ink mediums and this is his earliest known drawing.

Leonardo da Vinci was left handed and mostly wrote in mirror reversed cursive writing, and during his life-time he wrote and recorded 13,000 pages of notes and complex diagrams

Leonardo da Vinci is known as an artist throughout the world for his famous paintings like the 'Mona Lisa', 'The Last Supper' and the 'Virgin of the Rocks'

Some of Leonardo da Vinci's machine designs were physically constructed and tested for a documentary for the Channel Four British television station in 2003.