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lab q's

STUDY
PLAY
rouleaux formation is characterized by
a increase in ESR
ESR stands for
erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Erythrocyte sedimentation relies upon _______.
gravity
which of the following had the fastest sedimentation rate? the individual with angina pectoris, the individual with sickle cell anemia, the healthy individual, or the individual suffering a myocardial infarction?
the individual suffering a myocardial infarction
Which sample did NOT settle at all in one hour? the individual suffering a myocardial infarction, the individual with angina pectoris, the individual with sickle cell anemia, or the healthy individual?
the individual with sickle cell anemia
angina pectoris is
the heart not getting enough blood or oxygen because of an obstruction
What would explain the results of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate for the patient with sickle cell anemia?
The shape of the red blood cells prevented them from settling.
Which of the following does NOT result in an increase in hemoglobin levels?
living at high altitudes
congestive heart failure
hyperthyroidism
polycythemia
hyperthyroidism
Oxyhemoglobin _______.
has a dull, brick-red color and has oxygen attached to the polypeptide chain of hemoglobin
has oxygen attached to the polypeptide chain of hemoglobin
has a dull, brick-red color and has oxygen attached to the iron atom
has a dull, brick-red color
has oxygen attached to the iron atom
has oxygen attached to the iron atom
Describe hemoglobin and hematocrit values for the female with iron-deficiency anemia.
The hemoglobin was below normal, and the hematocrit was normal.
PCV
Packed cell volume
Hb
hemoglobin
Which of the following individuals had the highest hemoglobin level?
the healthy male
the healthy female
the female Olympic athlete
the male with polycythemia
the gemale Olympic athlete
Which test measures hemoglobin concentration in the blood?
hemoglobinometer determination
neutrophil (describe)
most abundant, cell body stains a neutral pink
eosinophil
cell body stains dark red
basophil
least common, stained by basic dyes, appear spotty
lymphocyte
large dark nucleus, divided into small and large lymphocytes
monocyte
large kidney shaped nucleus, largest white blood cell
Which of the following white blood cells are granulocytes?
lymphocytes and monocytes
eosinophils and monocytes
neutrophils and lymphocytes
basophils and neutrophils
basophils and neutrophils
Leukopenia may indicate ________.
a disease such as cirrhosis of the liver or tuberculosis
These white blood cells kill parasitic worms and play a complex role in allergic responses and asthma.
eosinophils
Describe the pressures in the atria and ventricles that would cause the opening of the AV valves.
Pressure in the atria would be greater than the pressure in the ventricles.
What causes the aortic semilunar valve to close?
greater pressure in the aorta than in the left ventricle
The majority of ventricular filling occurs while the ventricles and atria are in what state(s)?
diastole
The decrease in left ventricular pressure at the end of ventricular systole causes __________.
the semilunar valve to close
Ventricular diastole begins with the closing of the semilunar valves. What phase of the cardiac cycle happens between this event and the later opening of the AV valves?
isovolumetric relaxation
Which of the following would increase heart rate?
epinephrine and norepinephrine
decreased activity of the sympathetic nervous system
increased activity of the parasympathetic nervous system
acetylcholine
epinephrine and norepinephrine
How would an increase in the sympathetic nervous system increase stroke volume?
increased contractility
How would a decrease in blood volume affect both stroke volume and cardiac output?
decreased stroke volume and no change in cardiac output
The net hydrostatic pressure (HP) is the hydrostatic pressure in the __________ minus hydrostatic pressure in the __________.
capillary; interstitial fluid
Stimulation of the adrenal medulla would result in which of the following?
an increase in heart rate and contractility
a decrease in cardiac output
vasodilation of arteries
a decrease in blood pressure
an increase in heart rate and contractility
A decrease in blood pressure at the arterial baroreceptors would result in which of the following?
a decrease in heart rate
a decrease in cardiac output
an increase in heart contractility
vasodilation of arterioles
an increase in heart contractility
Which of the following has the greatest effect on peripheral resistance?
viscosity
blood vessel length
viscosity, blood vessel length and blood vessel diameter affect peripheral resistance equally
blood vessel diameter
blood vessel diameter
Arteries that are closer to the heart _______.
have more elastic tissue and must be able to withstand pressure changes
Blood flow is _______.
directly proportional to the pressure gradient
Cardiac output is _______.
equal to blood flow and equal to heart rate times stroke volume
equal to heart rate times (EDV minus ESV)
equal to blood flow
equal to heart rate times stroke volume
All of the above.
All of the above.
The volume in the pump when the pump piston is all the way down represents the _______.
end systolic volume
The overlap length of cardiac muscle in the healthy heart is _______.
less than optimum for maximum tension production
Afterload is the pressure threshold that must be exceeded to open _______.
the aortic semilunar valve and the pulmonary semilunar valve
An increased preload is equivalent to, or causes, a(n) _______.
increased EDV
Blood flowing in the vena cava will next enter the __________.
right atrium
the heart beat approx. ___ times a day
100,000
Blood leaves the right ventricle by passing through the
pulmonary valve.
Blood leaves the right ventricle by passing through the
pulmonary valve.
The right atrium receives blood from the
systemic circuit.
Blood flowing into the heart from the venae cavae flows next through the ________ valve.
tricuspid
Coronary veins empty into the
right atrium.
There are ________ pulmonary veins.
4
The ________ deliver(s) blood to the myocardium.
coronary arteries