type cast expression
lets you manually promote or demote a value. the general format for a type cast expression is: static_cast<datatype>(value)
like a varialbe, buts its content is read-only and cannot be changed while the program is running.
combined assignment operators
used to adjust values by replacing the value that was previously storeed there. (number = number-1 is equivalent to number -= 1
this manipulator indicates that a floating-point output should be printed in decimal notation. When used in conjuction with the setprcesision manipulator it specifies the number of digits to be displayed after the decimal point of a loating-point number, rather than the total number of digits to be displated.
a special funtion that will read in an etnire line, including leading and embedded spaces, and store it in a string object. getline (cin, name);
this funtion tells the cin object to skip characters in the keyboard buffer. cin.ignore (n, c). the arguments shown in the parentheses are optional. if used, n is an integer and c is a character. they tell cin to skip n number of characters, or until the character c is encountered. Statements that mix cin >> and cin.get can be repaired by inserting a cin.ignore statement after the cin >> statement
the way to create a string variable in C, a string defined in this manner is called a C-string. char word  = "Hello";
a function that is used to copy the contents of one string into another. strcopy (name1, sebastien) this copies Sebastien to name1.
used to prevent buffer overrun when entering a string to be used with a C-string. cin.width(5) accounts for the \n at the end, meaning it will only hold up to 4 characters in it
the cstdlib is required for this function and is used to generate a random number from an algorithm. But because it is an algorithm, the numbers are the same each time the program runs
file stream objects
the stream that must be identified prior to copying information to a file. Either ofstream, ifstream, or fstream. After identifying the stream, directly after it goes the file you would like to output/input to.