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terms and definition


the numbers inside the parentheses in a function.

Implicit type conversion

One data type outranks another if it can hold a larger number.

type cast expression

lets you manually promote or demote a value. the general format for a type cast expression is: static_cast<datatype>(value)

named constants

like a varialbe, buts its content is read-only and cannot be changed while the program is running.

define directive

used the same way as a named constant

combined assignment operators

used to adjust values by replacing the value that was previously storeed there. (number = number-1 is equivalent to number -= 1


the way a value is printed


offers a way of specifying the minimum number of spaces to use for each number.


this maniuplator rounds a number to a certain amount of significant digits


this manipulator indicates that a floating-point output should be printed in decimal notation. When used in conjuction with the setprcesision manipulator it specifies the number of digits to be displayed after the decimal point of a loating-point number, rather than the total number of digits to be displated.


shows the decimal point regardless of if it is needed or not


a special funtion that will read in an etnire line, including leading and embedded spaces, and store it in a string object. getline (cin, name);


used same as getline, but with a character and not a string


this funtion tells the cin object to skip characters in the keyboard buffer. cin.ignore (n, c). the arguments shown in the parentheses are optional. if used, n is an integer and c is a character. they tell cin to skip n number of characters, or until the character c is encountered. Statements that mix cin >> and cin.get can be repaired by inserting a cin.ignore statement after the cin >> statement


the way to create a string variable in C, a string defined in this manner is called a C-string. char word [10] = "Hello";

size declarator

tells how many memory cells to set up to hold the characters in the C-string


a function that is used to copy the contents of one string into another. strcopy (name1, sebastien) this copies Sebastien to name1.


used to prevent buffer overrun when entering a string to be used with a C-string. cin.width(5) accounts for the \n at the end, meaning it will only hold up to 4 characters in it


the cstdlib is required for this function and is used to generate a random number from an algorithm. But because it is an algorithm, the numbers are the same each time the program runs


a file needed that contains all the definitions necessary for file operations.

file stream objects

the stream that must be identified prior to copying information to a file. Either ofstream, ifstream, or fstream. After identifying the stream, directly after it goes the file you would like to output/input to.
ofstream ofile;

Opening the file"demoflile.txt")

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