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91 terms

US History 1900-1945

Industrialization, Immigration & Progressivism WWI & Great Depression
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Booker T. Washington
Through hard work leading to economic success, Washington felt that blacks could eventually acquire social and political rights.
WEB Du Bois
In response to Washington, DB felt that blacks should not have to tolerate white domination and should immediately fight for their social and political rights.
Atlanta Compromise
Booker T. Washington presented his views in 1895 in this speech. He said blacks should compromise with whites - though he did not feel blacks were inferior, he still endorsed a separate-but-equal policy.
NAACP
Co-founded by DuBois, National Assoc. Advancement of Colored People, which advocated an end to discrimination.
Old Immigration
Prior to 1871, most immigrants to America came from northern and western Europe: Germany, Great Britan, Ireland, Norway, and Sweden.
New Immigration
During the half century from 1871 to 1921, most immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe: Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia, and present-day Hungary and Yugoslavia; as well as Asia (China and Japan).
Knights of Labor
Who?: Terence V. Powderly
What: 1st national union
Goals:
-8 hour workday
- Worker-owned factories
- Abolition of child and prison labor
- Equal pay for men and women
- Safety codes in the workplace
- Prohibition of contact foreign labor
- Abolition of the National Bank
Eugene V. Debs
Who?: Leader of the American Railway Union
Goal: Change American society and economy in favor of the workers.
Difference from Samuel Gompers: Wants workers in control of the economy not big business.
Emmigrate
To emmigrate is to LEAVE one's country of origin to settle into another country.
Immigrate
To immigrate is to COME INTO a country for permanant residence.
Ku Klux Klan
Also known as the KKK, was an organization that believed in white supremacy, white nationalization, and anti-immigration. They terrorized those whom they felt inferior, such as African-Americans and foreigners.
16th Amendment
Power of Congress to tax incomes
17th Amendment
established the direct election of senators
18th Amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
19th Amendment
gave women the right to vote
Statue Of Liberty
a large monumental statue symbolizing liberty on Liberty Island in New York Bay
Capitalism
an economic system based on private ownership of capital
Limited Liability
the liability of a firm's owners for no more than the capital they have invested in the firm
Thomas Edison
Inventor of the light bulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations
Homestead Strike
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
Henry Ford
United States manufacturer of automobiles
Laissez-faire
The doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Wright Brothers
Two brothers, Orville and Wilbur, who were responsible for the first flight and creation of an airplane
Initiative
Reform that allowed reformers to circumvent state legislatures by submitting new legislation directly to the voters in general elections.
Recall
Reform that gave voters the right to remove a public official from office at a special election, which could be called after a sufficient number of citizens had signed a petition.
Referendum
Reform that provided a method by which actions of the legislature could be returned to the electorate for approval.
Slums
Slums are the run-down part of the city with a high rate of disease and poverty. It was mostly inhabited by immigrants in the progressive era and was rather unsanitary. It was abundant in crime, drug addiction, unemployment, and alcoholists.
Bessemer
Refined the steel-making process
Vanderbilt
Rail Road tycoon
Bessemer Process
Newly refined process for the production of steel; the first inexpensive industrial process for this purpose
Carnegie
The man behind Carnegie Steel; entrepreneur & philanthropist
Angel Island
Most immigrants from Asia arrived here, rather than Ellis Island. Located in CA.
United Negro Improvement Association
The United Negro Improvement Association was founded by Jamaican-born, Marcus Garvey, in 1914. He wanted a complete seperation with the white culture, because he felt that whites would never accept them in their world. To do this, they would have to return to their native land, or complete seperation within the United States.
Direct Election
Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons or political party that they desire to see elected. The method by which the winner or winners of a direct election are chosen depends upon the electoral system used.
The Jungle
The Jungle is a 1906 novel written by journalist Upton Sinclair. The Jungle raised a public outcry against the unhealthy standards in the meatpacking industry and provoked the passage of The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.
American Railway Union
The American Railway Union (A.R.U.) was founded on June 20, 1893 in Chicago, Illinois. Led by Eugene V. Debs, the A.R.U. very quickly became the nation's largest organized union. The A.R.U. welcomed any railway worker except for those above the rank of foreman.
Assembly line
Production system created by Henry Ford to make goods faster by moving parts on a conveyor belt past workers
Monopoly
exclusive control of a product or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices
Industrialization
the development of industry on an extensive scale
Ellis Island
an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States especially during the time of industrialization
Susan B. Anthony
Was a woman's rights activist who was the co-founder of the first Woman's Temperance Movement with Elizabeth Cady Stanton
J.P. Morgan
The most powerful financier in the US who financed the creation of the Federal Steel Company
Urbanization
The growth and movement to Urban city areas
Nativeism
The policy of protecting the rights of natural citizens of an area against immigrants
Strike
The act of refusing to work, most often in a group such as a union as a protest.
Populism
A political policy that supports the common people and their rights against the privileged upper class.
Unions
The joining together of workers to support each other in a common goal, usually to improve working conditions or wages.
Angel Island
The immigration station on the west coast where Asian immigrants, mostly Chinese gained admission to the U.S. at San Francisco Bay. Between 1910 and 1940 50k Chinese immigrants entered through Angel Island. Questioning and conditions at Angel Island were much harsher than Ellis Island in New York.
Tenements
poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
Plessy v. Ferguson
sumpreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal
"separate but equal"
Principle upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public facilities was legal.
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 - to protect the public against adulteration of food and from products identified as healthful without scientific support. It created requirement of proper label and restriction on prescribed drug.
Federal Trade Commission
FTC Act was passed to prevent unfair competition in business and to defend consumers. They also regulate advertisement, marketing, consumer lending, antitrust issues, and economics impact of government regulation on markets and industries
Sewage System
As the populations increased, more sewage systems were developed. However, it combined storm water in the sewage which was an unsanitary and inefficient, though the systems were cheaper than installing separate systems. Also, wastewater, or water with sewage in it, was normally dumped into nearby water sources, such as rivers and lakes.
Marcus Garvey
1887 - 1940: he was a publisher of the paper Negro World and a Black Nationalist who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League. He spoke about worldwide black unity and an end to colonialism and was famous for the Garvey Movement.
Assimilation
People of different backgrounds come to see themselves as part of a larger national family.
Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson has always been easy for liberals to like. He was a reformer during the Progressive era, establishing an eight-hour workday, outlawing child labor, and busting trusts. He instituted the federal income tax and the Federal Reserve System, and created the parameters of American foreign policy that remain with us today.
Federal Reserve
System of federal banks, charged with regulating the US money supply, mainly by buying and selling US securities and setting the discount interest rate.
William Howard Taft
During the progressive era, he strengthen the interstate commerce and improved the performance of the postal service.
Ida Tarbell
Leading muckraking journalist whose articles documented the Standard Oil Company's abuse of power
Jacob Riis
He was a Danish Immigrant muckraker who in the early 1900's exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC. He was
Upton Sinclair
He was a muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago.
Gilded Age
Late 1800s to Early 1900s - time of large increase in wealth caused by industrialization.
Continental United States
The 49 states, excluding Hawaii.
Commission
A fee for services rendered based on a percentage of an amount received or collected or agreed to be paid (as distinguished from a salary).
Council Manager
A form of city government in which the city council and mayor hire a professional manager to run the city.
Public transportation system
the trains and buses that carry people through a city
Industrial Conflict
conflict between worker and those with economic and political authority over them
price fixing
an agreement between two or more firms on the price they will charge for a product
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions
Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
United States federal law passed on May 6, 1882, following revisions made in 1880 to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend immigration, and Congress subsequently acted quickly to implement the suspension of Chinese immigration, a ban that was intended to last 10 years.
Andrew Carnegie
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Controversial legacy
Haymarket Strike
An organized protest in 1886 which was then disrupted when anarchists threw a bomb into a mist of police. It quickely turned into a riot. Many were killed and futher ruined the image of anarrchists and unions.
Square Deal
Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.
Zimmerman Note
Message proposing an alliance between Germany and Mexico
Acquisition of Hawaii
-US acquires Hawaii
-Jails Queen Liliuokalani
-Forces constitution
-Place to build a naval base and coaling stations
-Christianize
-Close to china
Zimmermann Note
a secret document to Mexico that said Germany would help them regain lost territories in Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico if they joined the war on the Central Powers side
Fourteen Points
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Spanish American War
In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans' fight for independence
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.
Prohibition
a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages
Open Door Policy
Statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China. Issued by U.S. secretary of state John Hay (1899), the statement reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade.
FDIC
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: a federally sponsored corporation that insures accounts in national banks and other qualified institutions
Margaret Sanger
American leader of the movement to legalize birth control during the early 1900's. As a nurse in the poor sections of New York City, she had seen the suffering caused by unwanted pregnancy. Founded the first birth control clinic in the U.S. and the American Birth Control League, which later became Planned Parenthood.
Scopes Trial
a highly publicized trial in 1925 when John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school
Social Security
Social Security is a social insurance program that is primarily funded through dedicated payroll taxes called Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax (FICA). Tax deposits are formally entrusted to the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Disability Insurance Trust Fund, the Federal Hospital Insurance Trust Fund, or the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund.
WPA
Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
Sinking of the USS Maine
The US battleship Main blew up with over 250 men found dead. The cause of the explosion could not be determined, but America immediately blamed Spain. "Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain!" This was one cause for the Spanish-American war. "yellow journalism"
Dollar Diplomacy
Term used to describe the efforts of the US to further its foreign policy through use of economic power by gaurenteeing loans to foreign countries
AAA
Agricultural Adjustment Administration (1933)- Recovery- Attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsides; reworked after the Supreme Court ruled its key regulatory provisions unconstitutional in 1936; coordinated agricultural production during World War II, after which it was disbanded.
National Origins Act of 1924
A law that dramatically restricted immigration by establishing quotas.