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Mid Term Vocab
Terms in this set (204)
Occurs when one person prepares and delivers a talk for a group that listens, generally without interrupting the speaker's flow of ideas.
An integrated system of learned beliefs, values, behaviors, and norms that include visible (clothing & food) and underlying (core beliefs & worldview) characteristics of a society.
Subgroups of culture, characterized by mild or profound cultural differences that coexist within the larger culture. Example: United States
The ability to adapt fairly successfully to a variety of social situations.
Core Cultural Resources
Beliefs, attitudes, & values (BAV) along with behaviors that provide a logical basis for a culture to define what is necessary, right, doubtful, or forbidden.
Culture with no writing and no technology for recording messages apart from face-to-face interactions.
Members of these cultures depend mainly on themselves and are judged on personal merits. Example: USA, Australia, Western Europe
Members of these cultures are integrated into an in-group that projects them throughout their lives. "We" before "I".
Example: Latin America, Asia
cultures that value privacy and encourage members to keep their emotions and ideas to themselves rather than to express them publicly.
Example: Japanese, Chinese, Finnish, Native Americans
Cultures that encourage members to give their opinions, speak their minds, and let their feelings show.
Example: Koreans, Puerto Rico, African Americans, African Cultures
An emerging form of public address housed online in new media platforms such as YouTube, Vimeo, & iReport
A culture's preferred ways of communicating, given its core assumptions and norms.
Topics a culture considers inappropriate.
Knowing and applying different rules for competent behaviors in 2 cultures.
The ability to think analytically about ideas.
The study of persuasion in its various forms; this helps develop critical thinking skills.
Working with customers to help solve issues of public concern.
Transactional Model of Communication
Represents communication as a process in which speakers and listeners work together to create mutual meanings.
Communication Apprehension (CA)
The fear of dread of negative responses you might experience because you speak out.
Public Speaking Anxiety
Fear of dream specifically related to speaking in public. (Form of Communication Apprehension)
Fear due to lack of confidence in knowing how to prepare a speech.
Fear of forgetting or of poorly presenting a speech.
Anticipatory Speech Anxiety
Tension experienced at the mere thought of giving a speech.
A set of principles, standards, norms, or guidelines to master to become good speakers.
Canons of Rhetoric
(1) Invention, (2) Disposition or Arrangement, (3) Style, (4) Memory, (5) Delivery
Canon of Invention
Principles for designing a speech that meets the need of a specific audience.
Canon of Disposition or Arrangement
Guidelines for organizing a speech.
Words, phrases, & sentences used to lead from idea to idea & tie parts of speech smoothly.
Canon of Style
Principles for choosing effective language.
Canon of Memory
Guidelines to help you remember your ideas. Known as the lost canon.
Learning the speech by heart & then reciting it.
Reading a speech.
Speaking with little advanced preparation.
Preparing a speech carefully in advance but choosing the exact wording during the speech itself.
Canon of Delivery
Provides guidelines for the four delivery methods & for nonverbal behaviors.
How your body responds to the feared event
Mental stress about a perceived threat
A rush of adrenaline that prepares you to run or stay to fight the threat
Teachers how to relax while thinking about frightening speech events.
Identifying negative thoughts & replacing them with positive ones in four areas: message, audience, yourself, assignment.
Rehearsing by using your imagination to envision your speech from start to finish
Assuming the open/expansive postures associated with powerful people
Lessening anxiety by successfully repeating an experience over time
Four purposes are to inform, to persuade, to entertain, to commemorate
Statement in the form of a phrase or sentence stating the cognitive, effective, or behavioral responses desired from the audience
Influences on beliefs, understanding, & other mental processes
Influences on listeners' feelings
Influences audience action
Central Idea or Thesis Statement
A single sentence that names the subject & establishes its significance & purpose
A short summary of the main points you'll develop in the speech
Some people or groups having very little access to information while others have it in abundance.
A method for presenting information by breaking the whole into parts & explaining each one
A method of presenting info by explaining things that are put into category according to a principle.
The "speech to teach" that explains an item in detail.
Focus on definition of the word
Focus on emotional association of words
Using a repetitive style such as alliteration of main points throughout speech
Saying the same thing more than once
Repeating the same idea more than once, but developing it differently each time.
Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC)
Digital catalog to help you locate books and materials in your library's holdings.
Book based on research that advances knowledge in an academic field.
Book aimed at a general audience
Text that summarizes information in a specific subject area
Journals that pertain to specific occupation
Journals that pertain to specific area of academic research
Traditional news sources such as local and national news papers
Native Digital News
News outlets on the internet that hire trained journalists and editors
People whose knowledge is based on research, experience or occupation
Ordinary people whose knowledge comes from everyday experiences
Strategy developed by librarians that evaluates material according to Message, Author, and Purpose
Information from a person actually involved in event
Evidence recorded by a primary source
Poem, dance, painting, writing, or other aesthetic creation
Relic or Artifact
Culturally significant creation such as a building, jewelry, or a tool
Summary or interpretation of an event or a person provided by a nonparticipant
Condenses primary and secondary materials into collections such as encyclopedias and dictionaries
The type of site such as .com, .edu, .org, that tells the site's purpose and tax status
Card used to record bibliographic information
To summarize a book or article's contents on a source card
Card for recording and categorizing important data.
Fair Use Provision
The provision in the federal copyright act that allows free use of materials for educational and research purposes.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Series of numbers and letters that locate intellectual property online
Information verifiable by observation
Information verified consistently by many observers
Average group of numbers
Middle number in a set of numbers arranged in a ranked order
Most frequently occurring number
Figure that shows the relationship of the part to the whole, which is represented by #100
Rates of Increase or Decrease
Percentage that uses an earlier baseline figure to compare growth or decline
Relationship shown by numbers (1 in 10)
Not a real incident or person, but true-to-life
State similarities between two things
Compare two actual things that are alike in important ways
States similarities between two otherwise dissimilar things; requires an imaginative connection
Show the actual subject
Implies the subject
Presents points in a sequential or time order
Describes a sequence of steps or stages that follow one another in a fairly predicable pattern
Presents points by place/location
Cause-Effect or Casual Pattern
Presents reasons (causes) and implications (effects) of a topic
Describes a problem and a possible solution or possible solutions to it
Presents arguments in favor of and arguments against an issue
Divides a subject into subtopics, each of which is part of the whole.
Points that are similar in kind and length
Words, phrases, or sentences used to lead from idea to idea and tie the parts of the speech together smoothly
Connectives such as first, most importantly and consequentially that link ideas, lends emphasis, and helps listeners keep their place in the speech
Summarizes where you've been and where you're going in your speech
Brief in-speech summary that foretells the subpoints you'll develop under a major point
Restates the ideas within a point or points
Alternative pattern that provides a clear speech structure in less linear form
Repetitive pattern that presents variations of themes and ideas with major points presented at the crests
Repetitive pattern with a series of points that increase in drama or intensity
Presents relatively equally weighted speech points within a thematic circle that binds them together; order of the points may vary
Formal record of your major ideas and their relationship to one another in your speech
A speech's intro, body, conclusion
A speech's major ideas with supporting materials and their relationship
The written text containing every word of the speech
Varying numbers and letters in a consistent pattern for different levels of points
Formatting by spacing various levels of points towards the right
Arranging points into levels, giving the points on a specific level the same basic value or weight
Placement of supporting points under major points
The notes you use to deliver your speech
Important words and phrases that will jog the speakers memory
Question that listeners answer in their minds
Question that listeners answer overtly
Visual, audio, and multimedia support that helps audiences understand and remember information
Dual Coding Theory (DCT)
Theory that our brains process materials two ways: through language and through images
Combining words and images to create meaning
A facsimile of an object you can't easily bring to the speech
Carries meaning in the written words rather than in visual images
Limit information to six lines, six words per line
Carry meaning in visual images; written words are secondary
Shows the order or directional flow in which processes occur; may simply be a series of labeled shapes and arrows
Shows hierarchies and relationships
Drawing or design that explains, rather than realistically depicts, an object or process
Shows current borders for states and nations, can be out dated in a fast changing world
Shows mountains, deserts, and other natural features; not easily outdated
Displays in a linear form one or more variables that fluctuate over a time period
Compares data from several groups by using bands of various lengths
Represents parts of the whole or divisions of a population by circles divided into portions
Picture Graphs or Pictographs
Presents data in pictures, each representing a certain number of individual cases
Presentation Software Program
Computer software to create a package of lists, tables, graphs, and clip art
High resolution cameras that display documents and 3D objects
Connects to other technology, you can overwrite material and then save your markups
Tablet you prepare in advance or create on the spot; turn to a new page or tear off and display pages as you finish
A font wit cross lines at the top and bottom of letters
Sans Serif Fonts
A simple font with no cross lines on each letter
The verbal and nonverbal behaviors you use to perform your speech
Looking audiences in the eye; communicates friendliness
Vocalics or Paralinguistics
All aspects of spoken language except the words
The way you enunciate or say specific sounds, as an element of pronunciation
Accenting syllables or words
Changes in volume, rate, and pitch that combine to create impressions of the speaker
Filled or Vocalized Pause
Saying um or like or other sounds during a pause
The ability to communicate in a personally effective and socially appropriate manner
A way of speaking characterized by effective vocal variety, fluency, gestures, and eye contact
Speaking that is comparatively calmer, slower, and less intense, but maintains good eye contact and gestures
Identifying audience characteristics to communicate more effectively.
Dialogical speaker who hears audience interests and concerns before, during, and after a speech.
Listeners who lack a listening purpose or goal
Listeners who are initially doing something else but are attracted by a message that catches their attention
Unmotivated listeners who listen to accomplish their goals
Listeners who listen for a reason
Listeners who choose to listen to a selected subject or speaker
Listeners who are similar in attitude
listeners who are negative toward the topic or the speaker
Listeners who are separated from the speaker and receive the message through some form of media
identifying audiences by populations they represent, such as age or ethnicity
relevant or significant
heritage and cultural traditions, usually stemming from national and religious backgrounds
category, often associated with stereotype, based on physical characteristics
culturally constructed category such as race or gender
biological categories of male and female
clusters of traits culturally labeled as masculine, feminine, or androgynous
selecting material that favors the speaker's interests and point of view
providing messages audiences want to hear, not necessarily what they need to hear
assessment of an audience's beliefs, values, and attitudes regarding a topic
asking audiences members directly for their opinion by questionnaires, interviews, and so on
mental acceptance of something as true or false, correct or incorrect, valid or invalid
request for a brief, specific answer
giving opportunity for a range of answers or a more lengthy response
our tendency to like of dislike something or to have positive or negative feelings about it
asking for responses along a continuum, used to assess attitudes
standards used to make evaluative judgements such as good or bad
asking for responses to be placed in order
assessing audiences by observation or secondhand sources
demonstrated or intrinsic credibility
obvious knowledge the speaker shows during the speech
final impression listeners have of a speaker
the symbolic process in which a communicator intentionally creates an argument in an attempt to convince others to change their attitudes or behaviors in an atmosphere of free choice
an intentional, purposeful set of reasons created to explain disputed beliefs and conclusions
reasons the speaker creates to accept an argument (ethos, pathos, logos)
personal credibility or character traits that make a speaker believable and worthy of the audience's confidence
using behaviors that signal positive interest and engagement, especially through pleasant facial expressions
identification or co orientation
concerns shared among speakers and listeners that help overcome divisions and bring diverse people together
specific areas or concerns that both speaker and audience consider important
internal, individualized factor that results when we understand how topics affect over lives in a personal way
appeals or reasons directed towards audience emotions
arguments, from the words of the speech itself; often called rational proofs
comparison of one item that less familiar or unknown to something concrete and familiar
reasoning by metaphor
comparing two things are generally different but share a recognizable similarity
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