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Chapter 28, 29, and 30

Progressive Movement

Waged war against monopoly, corruption, inefficiency, and social injustice. It had some similarities to the reform movement of the 1840s. It's roots went back to the Greenback Labor Party and the Populists. The main objective was to "strengthen" the state through the govt, and use the govt. as an agency of human welfare

Henry Lloyd

The author of 'Wealth Against Common Wealth' which exposed the corruption of the Standard Oil Company

Thorstein Veblen

The author of 'The Theory of Leisure Class' which criticized those who have made their money through trusts

Jacob A. Riis

The author of 'How the Other Half Lives' which talked about the New York slums and there terrible condition

Theodore Dresier

The author of 'The Financier' and 'The Titan' which attacked the profiteers


Began in 1902 when exposing evil by digging up dirt on politicians and businesses, in hopes to end social injustice, became a flourishing industry among publishers especially in cheep magazines like McClure's, Cosmopolitan, Colliers, and Everybody's. Roosevelt branded them as muckrakers. They were against the beef trusts, money trusts, railroad barons, and esp. social evils like traffic of women, slums, & industrial accidents

Lincoln Steffens

Wrote an article in McClures magazine called "The Shame of the Cities" he unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and the govt.

Ida M. Tarbell

Published a factual expose of the Standard Oil Company

David G. Phillips

"The Treason of the Senate" in Cosmopolitan charged that 75 of the 90 senators did not represent the people at all but rather the railroads and the trusts. Impressed TR.

Ray Stannard Baker

Wrote "Following the Color Line which mentioned how 90% of the 9 million blacks still lived in the south and one-third were illiterate

John Spargo

"The Bitter Cry of the Children" mentioned the abuses of child labor

"Poison Squad"

Medicines were loaded with alcohol making it very ineffective and addictive. The medicine was attacked in the Collier and were reinforced by Dr. Harvey W. Wiley and his poison squad

Significance of muckrakers

They signifies much about the nature of the progressive reform movement. To write the social wrongs they counted on publicity to arouse peoples conscience. They wanted to sure the ills of democracy with more democracy

Who were the progressives

militarists and pacifists. they emerged in both major parties, in all regions and at all levels of govt. Less of a minority movement and more of a broadly dispersed majority mood

Political Progressive goals

1. To use the state to curb monopoly power
2. To improve the common persons conditions of life and labor

First objective of progressives

Give the power back to the people by pushing for direct primary elections as a way to undercut power-hungry party bosses. And rooting out graft


It was favored by the progressivists because with it the voters could directly propose legislation themselves without having to deal with the boss-bought state legislatures


This would place laws on the ballot for final approval by the people, especially those laws that affected them


Allow voters to remove the bad and bribed officials from office

Corrupt- practice acts

passed by state legislatures, it limited the amount of money that candidates could spend for their election, restricted huge gifts from corporations because in return they'd expect favors

Australian Ballot

It was a secret ballot that was being introduced in the states as a way to counteract boss rule because the bribers would be less likely to bribe if they couldn't tell that if it worked

17th Amendment

1913. Established a direct election of the senators. It was hard to pass because the Senate was happy with the way things were but the local legislature found it wiser to listen to the people for political reasons

Woman Suffrage

Got support from the progressivists because thought that their votes would elevate the political tone and those against the saloon would have their support. Liberal states in West like Washington, Cali, and Oregon extended vote to women. Still ways a way from gaining full suffrage

Galveston, TX

An example for the localities who were frustrated with the inefficiency and corruption of machine- oiled city govt because it had appointed staffed commissions to manage the urban affairs

City- manager system

adopted by communities. designed to take politics out of administration

Urban reformers

attacked slumlords, juvenile delinquency, and prostitution in red light districts. Wanted to clean up water supply, add lights to the streets, and run trolly cars (ideas on how to do so came from German and English cities)

Robert M. La Follette

Most militant of the progressive republican leaders. he became governor of wisconsin in 1901. he attacked the lumber and railroad trusts. gave back control to the people. perfected scheme fore regulating public utilities

Hiram W. Johnson

elected republican gov of cali. in 1910. he helped break up the Southern Pacific Railroad on Cali politics and then set up own political machine

Charles Evan Hughes

Rep. governor of NY gained fame by investigated the malpractices by gas and insurance companies and coal trusts

Settlement House Movement

offered side door to public life. it was crucial focus for women's activism. exposed women to the problems plaguing Americans cities (poverty, political corruption, intolerable working/living conditions)

"Separate spheres"

women defended their new activities as an extension of the traditional roles of wife and mother, drawn to maternal issues like child labor, poor tenements, pensions, and food

Department of Labor including females

two new federal agencies, Children's Bureau (1912) and Women's Bureau (1920) gave female reforms national stage for social investigation and advocacy

Florence Kelly

former resident of Jane Adams Hull House became the state of illinois first chief factory inspector and leading advocate for improved factory conditions. Took control of National Consumers League which mobilized female consumers to pressure for laws protecting women and children in workplace

Muller v. Oregon

attorney Louis D. Brandeis persuaded Sup. Court to accept the constitutionality of laws protecting women workers in factories

Lochner v. NY

1905 Sup. Court invalidated NY law that established a 10-hr work day for bakers. 1917 similar laws upheld for factory workers

Triangle Shirtwaist Company

The laws that regulated factories were worthless if they werent uphelp as shown with the lethal fire in 1911 which killed 146 young immigrant women workers

workers compensation laws

effect of the fire, it provided insurance to workers who were injured in industrial jobs. this is the concept of employers responsibility (new)

Women's Christian Temperance Union

supported antiliquor campaigns. Founder was Francis E. Willard and made it the largest organization in world. Found ally with the Anti-Saloon League

18th Amendment

During WWI about half of the pop. lived in "dry" territory which controlled, restricted, and abolished alcohol.

Square Deal

Created by TR. Demanded a square deal for capitol, labor, and public. It embraced three C's: control of corporations, consumer protections, and conservation of natural resources

Coal miners strike

Put the Square Deal for labor to test. after getting nowhere TR threatened to seize mines and operate them with federal troops- first time ever threat against captial rather than labor

Department of Commerce and Labor

1903. Important part of the new cabinet was the Bureau of Corporations which was authorized to probe businesses engaged in interstate commerce. Helpful for "trust-busting"

Elkins Act 1903

Congress passed effective railroad legislation beginning with Elkins Act. It fined railroads that gave rebated and the shippers that accepted them

Hepburn Act 1906

restricted free passes because it was a bribe. this included express companies, sleeping-car companies, and pipelines

TR's idea on good and bad trusts

The "good" trusts, with public consciences, and "bad" trusts, which lusted greedily for power. determined to respond to popular outcry against trusts but determined not to throw out the larger businesses that were efficient producers

Norther Securities Company

Railroad holding company organized by JP Morgan and James J Hill. Sup. Court upheld TR's antitrust suit and ordered company to dissolve (angered businesses, pop with the people)

TR reputation as trust-buster

understood that it was a good political move, but didnt consider it economically sound. he didnt think all big businesses were bad because combination and integration were what made the big businesses successful so why punish then? Real reason was to show that govt. was still most powerful not the businesses. busted 40 trusts

The Jungle

Upton Sinclairs's novel discussed the disgusting, unsanitary food products being produced in meat factories

Meat Inspection Act 1906

decreed that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection. Excepted by larger packers because thought it could drive out smaller ones. didnt want to mess up trade with europe

Pure Food and Drug Act 1906

designed to prevent adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals

Desert Land Act of 1877

first feeble step toward conserving land. federal govt. sold arid land cheaply on condition that purchaser irrigate soil with 3 years

Forest Reserve Act of 1891

authorized president to set aside public forests as national parks and other reserves saved 46 mill acres

Carey Act of 1894

distributed federal land to states on condition that they be irrigated and settles

Gifford Pinchot

dedicated conservationist, head of federal Division of Forestry

Newlands Act 1902

washington authorized to collect money from sale of public lands in western states and then use the funds for the development of irrigation projects. the money gained from their productive soil was used into a revolving fund to finance the same enterprise

Roosevelt's hardcoreness about conserving land

wanted to preserve the trees that the lumbermen were knocking down (set aside 125 mill. acres of fed. reserves) did same with coal deposits and water resources useful for irrigation and power. TR most enduring achievement was conserving because concerned about disappearance of frontier (nationalism and dem)

Reactions to Conservation

Jack Londons "call of the wild" and other books about nature, Boy Scouts of America, woman raised money for nature preserves, Audubon Society saved birds from becoming hats, and Sierra Club preserved wilderness of w. landscape

Hetchy Hetch Valley

San Fran allowed to build dam here even though part of national park caused controvery

multiple-use resource management

combine recreation, sustained yield logging, watershed protection, and summer stock grazing on the same expanse of federal land

TR's talk of a second term

he was popular among the people but a threat to the bosses because in 2nd terma he called for more regulation of corporations, taxing incomes, and protecting workers. lost some popularity because said didnt want to run for third term

Panic 1907

short but punishing panic on walstreet, TR became the man to blame. however it paved the way for long overdue fiscal reforms

Aldrich-Vreeland Act

authorized national banks to issue emergency currency backed by various kinds of collateral. this response was due to the banks not being able to increase volume of money in circulation

William Howard Taft

Secretary of war and mild progressive, he was TR's successor because he'd carry out TR's policies he won the election of 1908 with the help of TR against dem nominee William Jennings Bryan. graduated second in class at yale a good lawyer and judge and trusted administrator

TR's Legacy

enlarged power and prestige of presidential office, developed technique of using big stick as political bludgeon, helped shape progressive and liberal campaigns, square deal, tames capitalism, conservation crusade of natural resources; took middle road btw preservatives, and resource predators, and showed america that we shared world

Dollar Diplomacy

taft urged americans to invest abroad for political and foreign policy interests. wanted the bankers to out money into foreign ares where it would benefit US the most like in the east and the panama canal. this gave us economic control in these areas

Taft a trustbuster

smashed 90 trusts in four years, biggest one being the Standard Oil Company. Attempted to bring down the US Steel Corporation this pissed TR off because he though that was a "good" trust

"Rule of Reason"

doctrine held that only those combinations that "unreasonably" restrained trade were illegal

Payne- Aldrich Bill

Taft wanted to lower the tariff to fulfill campaign promises. The house passed moderately reductive bill but senatos tacked on so many revisions that it did little to uphold his promises. old republicans were high tariff and new progressive republicans were low

Bureau of Mines

controlled the mineral resources.

Ballinger-Pinchot quarrel

Hurts Tafts reputations. Sec. of Interior Richard Ballinger opened public lands in wyoming, montana, and alaska to corporate development and was criticized by forestry chief gifford pinchot who was then fired by taft. old rep. favored land for business, new rep. wanted land conserved

differences between TR and Taft

Caused the rep. party to split making the next one a dem. victory

Victor L. Berger

socialist representative from austrian, was elected from milwaukee

National Progressive Republican League

formed 1911 with senator La Follette of Wisconsin its leading candidate for repub. presidential nominations. however when TR wanted his position back Follette was pushed aside

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