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Law of energy conservation
energy may be transformed from one form to another but it cannot be created or destroyed
the pruduct of mass and velocity
increased velocity = increased momentum
the total momentum before any interactino is equal to the total momentum after the interaction
metal- aluminum, copper
inserted into x-ray housing so that low-energy x-rays are absorbed before they reach tehe patient (little diagnostic value)
restrics the useful x-ray beam to that part of the body to be imaged and thereby spares adjacent tissue from uneccessary radiation
lower scatter = higher contrast
cassette with radiographic intensifying screens on both sides
reduced exposure time with glass photographic plates
Abdominal/Pelvic x-ray exaominations of expectant mothers should not be conducted during....
first trimester unless absolutly necessary
invented the stationary grid "Glitterblende"
2 months later- another patent was unknown because of the first world war (H.Potter)
When did acceptable kVp and mAs levels become possible
matching of the coolidge tube with the snook transformer
William D Coolidge
hot-cathode x-ray tube, far superior to crookes tube
vacume tube that allowed x-ray intensity and energy to be selected seperately and with great accuracy
what x-ray tubes mainly are today
Severe x-ray burn, amputation of both arms
died 1904, first x-ray fatality in the U.S.
Thomas A. Edison
barium platinocyanide found zinc cadmium sulfide and calcium tungstate
Charles L Leonard
Found that by exposing two glass x-ray plates with the emulsion surfaces together exposure time was halved and the image was enhanced
1904 double emulsion film
1918 commercially available
dentist sheet of lead with hole (diaphragm) inserting a leather or aluminum filter improved diagnostic quality and reduce patient exposure, collimation and filtration
November 8, 1895
plate coated with barium platinocyanide glowed when next to the crookes tube fluorescence
How to provide an x-ray beam that is satisfactrory for imaging
you must supply the x-ray tube with a high voltage and a sufficient electric current
any type of radiation that is capable of removing an orbital electron from the atom with which it interacts
natural environmental radiation
internally deposited radionuclides
largest source of natural environmental radiation
a radioactive gas that is produced by the natural radioactive decay of uranium
emits alpha particles, radiation to lung only, non penetrating
man made radiation
largest- diagnostic x-rays (catscan)
nuclear power, research applications industrial sources, consumer items
partially evacuated glass tube
cathode rays experimented with by sir William crookes
least familiar level but the most important in x-ray
radiowaves, microwaves, ultraviolet rays, infared, visable light
Theory of relativity or Mass-Energy formula
energy= mass x speed of light in a vacum tube squared
the work that can be done when an electron moves through an electric potential difference (voltage)
a segment of physics that deals with objects at rest (statics) and objects in motion (dynamics)
because they are derived from a combination of one or more of the three basic quantities
energy, power, work, momentum, force, velocity, acceleration
designed to support measurement in specialized areas of science and technology
exposure, dose, equivalent dose, radioactivity
distance between two lines engraved on a platinum - iridium bar kept at the international Bureau of weights and measurements in paris - 1 meter
Average velocity equation
average velocity= final velocity + initial velocity
over 2 (divided by )
V = Vf + Va
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