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APUSH 18 Identifications
Terms in this set (32)
United States financier who gained control of the Erie Canal and who caused a financial panic in 1869 when he attempted to corner the gold market (1836-1892)
Collis P. Huntington
One of the Big Four with Leland Stanford, he was involved in both railroads and shipping. He founded Newport News Shipping, the largest privately owned shipyard in the United States.
James J. Hill
railroad entrepreneur who built and operated the Great Northern Railroad from St. Paul, Minnesota to Everett, Washington; without any federal grants or subsidies, the Great Northern Railroad made money by shipping goods to Asia, GNR became the most successful transcontinental railroad and the only one that wasn't eventually forced into bankruptcy
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
Interstate Commerce Commission
a former independent federal agency that supervised and set rates for carriers that transported goods and people between states
J. Pierpont Morgan
an American financier, banker, philanthropist, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892 Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thompson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric.
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
John D. Rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
United States v. E. C. Knight Co.
(1895) Congress wanted to bust a trust because it controled 98% of sugar manufacturing. Supreme court said no because it wasn't interstate commerce which they do have the right to regulate. Severely weakend the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Thomas A. Edison
One of the most prolific inventors in U.S. history. He invented the phonograph, light bulb, electric battery, mimeograph and moving picture.
Henry W. Grady
Editor of the Atlanta Constitution, preached about economically diversified South with industries and small farms, and absent of the influence of the pre-war planter elite in the political world.
William H. Sylvis
- founded National Labor Union
- primary goal was Humanitarian reform, In 1863 he was was elected P of the Iron Moulder's International Union. He traveled the country encourage iron molders to organize. In 1866 his dream of a nationwide union to represent all works, he called a convention in Baltimore that formed the National Labor Union (NLU).
Terence V. Powderly
Knights of Labor leader, opposed strikes, producer-consumer cooperation, temperance, welcomed blacks and women (allowing segregation)
United States labor leader (born in Ireland) who helped to found the Industrial Workers of the World (1830-1930), a dressmaker in Chicago until a fire destroyed her business. She then devoted her life to the cause of workers. Supported striking railroad workers in Pittsburg, and traveled around the country organizing coal miners and campaigning for improved working conditions. Helped pave the way for reform.
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
Samuel Gompers and the American Federation of Labor
formed in 1886 under the leadership of Samuel Gompers, a London-born cigar maker. AFL was a craft union. The AFL sought to organize only skilled workers in a network of smaller unions, each devoted to a specific craft.
railroad strikes of 1877
on Baltimore and Ohio Railroads, created by wage cuts after Panic of 1873, started by Knights of Labor, closed nearly two-thirds of railroads due to wildcat strikes
Haymarket Square bombing
In Chicago, home to about 80,000 Knights of Labor and a few hundred anarchists that advocated a violent overthrow of the American government, tensions had been building, and on May 4, 1886, Chicago police were advancing on a meeting that had been called to protest brutalities by authorities when a dynamite bomb was thrown, killing or injuring several dozen people.
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
This was a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads, which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894, because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers. It was ended by the president due to the interference with the mail system, and brought a bad image upon unions.
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
conservative Social Darwinism
This was talked about by Lester Frank Ward in the Dynamic Sociology (83) that argued that contrary to Sumner's claim, the supposed laws of nature could be circumvented by human will. Goven't experts could use the power of the state to regulate big businesses, protect society's weaker members, & prevent exploitation of natural resources.
William Graham Sumner
He was an advocate of Social Darwinism claiming that the rich were a result of natural selection and benefits society. He, like many others promoted the belief of Social Darwinism which justified the rich being rich, and poor being poor.
Lester Frank Ward
sociologist who wrote Dynamic Sociology in 1883 and other books , in which he argued that civilization was not governed by natural selection but by human intelligence, which was capable of shaping society as it wished, and he believed that an active government engaged in positive planning, which was societies best hope. Sociologist who attacked social Darwinism in his book, Dynamic Sociology.
Henry George, Progress and Poverty
Said that poverty was the inevitable side-effect of progress., San Fransisco journalist published a provocative book in 1879 that was an instant best seller. It jolted readers to look more critically at the effects of laissez-faire economics. The book proposes putting a single tax on land as the solution to poverty.
Edward Bellamy, Looking Backward
rivaling Henry George, he wrote Looking Backward, it described the experiences of a young Bostonian who went into a hypnotic sleep in 1887 and awoke in 2000, finding a new social order in which want, politics and vice were unknown. The society had emerged through peace and evolution, and all of the trusts of the 1800's joined together form one government controlled trust, which distributed the abundance of the industrial economy equally among all people. "Fraternal cooperation" replaced competition, there were no class divisions, and there was great nationalism.
-Ideology founded in the criticism over the capitalist system and its obvious excesses.
Established in 1870, it was a integrated multinational oil corporation lead by Rockefeller
"New South Creed"
Idea that promoted industry, diversification of agriculture, white and black cooperation, need for new men to lead South, need for harmonious relations with the North
National Labor Union
founded by William Sylvis (1866); supported 8-hour workday, convict labor, federal department of labor, banking reform, immigration restrictions to increase wages, women; excluded blacks
Knights of Labor
(GC) , one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century. Founded by seven Philadelphia tailors in 1869 and led by Uriah S. Stephens, its ideology may be described as producerist, demanding an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories. Leaderships under Powderly, successful with Southwest Railroad System, failed after Haymarket Riot
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