In 1798, Sir Humphry Davy
began providing himself and his friends with sessions of nitrous oxide (laughing gas). He did not consider nitrous oxide uses as an anesthetic.
In 1832, Dr. Thomas Latta
He was the first to realize that cholera patients were dying of dehydration and he used intravenous fluids to restore patients.
In 1833, Dr. William Beaumont was the first to discover
He was the first to discover that the contents of the human stomach were extremely acidic and aided in the chemical digestion of food.
In 1881, Dr. Samuel von Basch, a Czech-Austrian physician
He described the first sphygmomanometer. This instrument is still used to measure Blood Pressure.
In 1897, chemist Felix Hoffman
at pharmaceutical company giant Bayer in Germany, produced a form of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) powder to alleviates his father's arthritis. ASA later becomes the active ingredient in ASPIRIN.
In 1884, Carl Koller, a young german eye surgeon
began using cocaine as a local anesthetic on his patients, after the suggestion by psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud.
In 1798, Edward Jenner "Father of Immunology"
revolutionized medicine, creating the concept of a vaccine, or immunization with the idea that infectious-causing agents can be passed from one human to another to create natural immunity. Jenner introduced the vaccinia virus to combat smallpox, a lethal & contagious skin infection.
The World Health Organization (WHO) would not declare eradication (removal, destroy) of smallpox worldwide until
In 1793, Napolean's army was the first to use
official ambulances, which were created by Baron Dominique Larry, the surgeon-in-chief of the French grand army
In 1846, Dr. John Hutchinson
developed the spirometer, which was used to measure how well the lung functioned and used it to assess and monitor lung diseases.
In 1895, German physicist Wilhelm Rontgen
was the first to create and systematically study x-rays. He received the first nobel prize in physics for his discovery.
In 1899, Drs. Jean-Louis Prevost and Frederic Batelli
invented the defibrillator, which is still used to convert a heart that is no longer beating to its normal rhythm and prevent sudden death by electrical shock.
New diseases and epidemics included
cholera, yellow fever, tuberculosis, malaria, influenza, measles, diptheria, scarlet fever & many others. Some have insect vectors (malaria and yellow fever are transmitted via mosquitoes), the diseases were either sanitation issues or microbes (bacteria, viruses, etc.)
In 1798, John Dalton
described color blindness, in which the eye can only detect certain colors b/c the specialized cells called cones, found in the retina, are damaged.
In 1847, obstetrician Ignaz Semmelweis
hypothesized that hand-washing w/ chlorinated lime solution b/t deliveries could prevent the spread of infections, particularly puerperal fever.
In 1849, Elizabeth Blackwell
was the first woman to receive a medical degree, graduated from Geneva Medical College in Geneva, NY.
In 1860, Florence Nightingale
opened the world's first secular nursing school, St. Thomas Hospital in London
In 1865, Gregor Mendel, "Father of Genetics"
published his findings about dominant/recessive traits after manipulating pea plant's color, height, size, and shape.
In 1865, Joseph Lister
was the first to use carbolic acid solution (now known as phenol) on a leg fracture as a powerful and effective antiseptic.
In 1881, Louis Pasteur
demonstrated how vaccines could provide immunity by injecting half of his livestock subjects w/ the anthrax vaccine while the other half were untouched. When anthrax was later introduced, the vaccinated livestock lived while the control group died.
In 1890, Robert Koch published Koch's postulates, which are four criteria designed to
establish a casual relationship b/t a causative microbe and a disease. Study was originally intended to investigate tuberculosis and anthrax, but the criteria have been generalized to other diseases via microbe.
In 1890, Dr. Sigmund Freud
released his theory of psychoanalysis and described the 5 fundamental "pillars" of psychoanalyses
In 1893, Dr. Daniel Hale Williams, an african-american
was the 1st person to successfully perform open heart surgery
In 1894, Dr. John Snow, "Father of Epidemiology"
began investigating the significant increase in cholera cases in London.
During the year 1900, the Census Bureau reported the # of physicians/surgeons, RNs, and dentists to be...
120,000 physicians and surgeons
Dentistry was practiced by
barbers, blacksmiths, and physicians, all claiming the title of dentist, but few having a professional background
Nurses served as
midwifes during labor, but would receive great praise during and after the Civil War for the ability to tend to soldiers
By 1900, how many medical schools, nursing schools, and dental schools were there? Graduates of each?
160 medical schools w/ 5,214 grads
443 nursing schools w/ 3,456 grads
57 dental schools w/ 2,091 grads
In 1787, the 1st North American insurance company to care for the sick and poor in the black community was founded
in Philadelphia by freed slaves. The company is now known as North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, and remains the largest african-american owned insurance company in the U.S.
In 1900, Ivan Petrovich Pavlov conducted
his famous dog experiment, in which he developed the "conditioned reflex" in physiology and neurology. demonstrated classical conditioning with dogs.
In 1900, Dr. Walter Reed
confirmed that yellow fever was caused by mosquito bites not direct human contact
In 1902, physicians William Maddock Bayliss & Ernest H. Starling suggested that
hormones act as chemical messengers through which organs regulate bodily functions. & was coupled with their discovery of the hormone secretin
In 1904, The National Tuberculosis Association
was founded to prevent & cure tuberculosis (American Lung Association)
In 1905, German chemist Alfred Einhorn
created the 1st injectable anesthetic procaine (now known as Novocain) & was used in dentistry
In 1912, Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins
discovered the existence of vitamins and published a journal article describing their importance to health
In 1900, the 3 most fatal diseases were
tuberculosis, diptheria, and pneumonia, causing 1/3 of all deaths in the US
In 1906, Dr. Alois Alzheimer
discovered "presenile dementia", which is now commonly referred to as Alzheimer's Disease
In 1902, Maryland enacted
the first state workmen's compensation law. In 1904 it was declared unconstitutional
In 1906, the American Association for Labor Legislation (AALL)
was created to promote standardization in labor legislation
In 1907, what was created in the Bureau of Immigration & Naturalization, Department of Commerce & Labor
the first Federal Employment Service (later known as the United States Employment Service)
In 1910, what were introduced by commerical and nonprofit organizations?
health insurance plans, offering medical care for industrial workers in isolated areas, and disability benefits
In 1908, the Federal Employers Liability Act (FELA) was passed, which?
protected and compensated railroad workers injured while working
In 1901, the American Medical Association reorganizes, resulting in?
its professional and political influence to increase. In addition, the Journal of the American Medical Association was intended to inform the public of good health providers.
In 1901, ARMY Nurse corps
became a permanent corps of the Medical Department under the Army Reorganization Act. The ARMY nurse corps along w/ many other orgs. was the frontrunner for the founding of the National Organization for Public Health Nursing.
In 1901, the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research
was founded in NYC and was devoted to research in curing diseases
In 1901, a smallpox outbreak
leads officials to mandate vaccines for all Americans. This mandate created many ethical and human rights debates.
In 1916, Harold Gillies from Britian
pioneered facial reconstruction surgery w/ archaic skin grafts and flesh tubing techniques (plastic surgery) during WWI.
In 1912, Harvey Cushing
described his patient as having hypercorticism (now referred to as Cushing's disease). He assumed it was polyglandular disease
In 1913, German physician F. Friedman
advocated an alleged cure for tuberculosis and vaccinated 350 children. The Public Health Services investigated and refuted the vaccines.
In 1914, bacteriologist Sir Almroth E. Wright
persuaded Lord Kitchener to issue an order requiring that all British troops sent overseas be given anti-typhoid inoculations. He was appalled by the losses to typhoid fever in the Boer War and was credited w/ saving at least 120,000 lives.
In 1913, Albert Salomon
developed an x-ray technique used for detecting breast cancer, mammography. The cancerous cells would appear opaque on the mammography.
In 1917, Harold Gillies
performed the 1st skin-grafting procedure on a wounded WWI soldier."Father of Plastic Surgery"
In 1914, the hookworm control program
started in Arkansas by the Rockefeller Sanitary Commission in 1910, reaches its peak of activity, but in many areas barefoot hookworm victims are reinfected soon after treatment.
Between 1918-1919, an influenza outbreak occured named the
Spanish influenza. At the time, it was thought to have originated in Spain. This outbreak stands as the most significant pandemic to afflict mankind over the last several centuries.
In 1919, Frederick Allen
established the 1st treatment clinic in the US. The Physicatrist Institute in New Jersey treated patients w/ diabeties,high blood pressure, and Bright's disease
In 1913, Dr. Paul Dudley
became the world's 1st cardiologist. He pioneered the use of electrocardiograms for diagnostic purposes.
In 1914, Margaret Sanger
published a magazine called The Woman Rebel & founded the National Birth Control League. These acts were all in retaliation of the Cornstock Act of 1973, which prohibited the distribution of birth control information.
In 1912, the American Association for Labor Legislation
established the Social Insurance Committee & The Children's Bureau (which protected mothers and children)
In 1914, President Wilson
signed into law the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act. bringing cocaine, heroin, and morphine under federal control. The act requires that all persons licensed to sell narcotic drugs file inventories of their stocks w/ the Internal Revenue Service and pay a special tax of $1 per year.
In 1914, the Supreme Court
ruled that users & sellers of opium are liable to prosecution. Physicians and pharmacists prospered from writing prescriptions of narcotics and challenged the Harrison Act as an abridgement of constitutional rights.
By 1920, the Census Bureau recorded how many doctors, nurses, & dentists?
After the Flexner Report in 1910
only 85 medical schools still existed under tight surveillance by 1920.