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the conditional release of a prisoner, prior to completion of the imposed sentence, under the supervision of a parole officer
a person or correctional agency that has the authority to grant parole, revoke parole, and discharge from parole
salient factor score
scale, developed from a risk-screening instrument, used to predict parole outcome
time taken of an inmates sentence for participating in certain positive activities such as going to school, learning a trade, and working in prison
the tensions between prison staff member and inmates that arise out of the correctional setting
the beliefs, values, and behavior of staff. they differ greatly from those of the inmate subculture
correctional officer personalities
The distinctive personal characteristics of correctional officers, including behavioral, emotional and social traits
industrial shop and school officers
Those who ensure efficient use of training and educational resources within the prison
perimeter security officers
those assigned to security (or gun) towers, wall posts, and perimeter patrols. These officers are charged with preventing escapes and detecting and preventing intrusions
Experienced correctional officers who know and can perform almost any custody role within the institution, used to temporarily replace officers who are sick or on vacation or to meet staffing shortages
The beliefs, values, behavior, and material objects shared by a particular group of people within a larger society
a place where the same people work, play, eat, sleep, and recreate together on a continuous basis.
the habits, customs, mores, values, beliefs, or superstitions of the body of inmates incarcerated in correctional institutions; also, the inmate social world
the process by which inmates adapt to prison society; the taking on of the ways, mores, customs, and general culture of the penitentiary
pains of imprisonment
major problems that inmates face, such as loss of liberty and personal autonomy, lack of material possessions, loss of hetero-sexual relationships, and reduced personal security
the belief that inmate subcultures develop in response to the deprivations in prison life
the belief that inmate subcultures are brought into prisons from the outside world
a combination of importation theory and deprivation theory. The belief that, in childhood, some inmates acquired, usually from peers, values that support law-violating behavior but that the norms and standards in prison also affect inmates
a set of norms and values among prison inmates. It is generally antagonistic to the official administration and rehabilitation programs of the prison
family like structures, common in women's prisons, in which inmates assume roles similar to those of family members in free society
the incarceration and interaction of female of female and male offenders under a single institutional administration
A historical policy of American courts not to intervene in prison management. Courts tended to follow the doctrine until the late 1960s
Constitutional guarantees of free speech, religious practice, due process, and other private and personal rights as well as constitutional protections against cruel and unusual punishments made applicable to prison inmates by the federal courts.
the personal and due process rights guaranteed to individuals by the US Constitution and its amendments, especially the first 10, known as the Bill of Rights. Constitutional rights are the basis of most inmates rights
prison administration interests recognized by the courts as justifying some restrictions on the constitutional rights of prisoners. Those interests are maintenance of institutional order, maintenance of institutional security, safety of prison inmates and staff, and rehab of inmates
writ of habeas corpus
an order that directs the person detaining a prisoner to bring him or her before a judge, who will determine the lawfulness of the imprisonment
a civil wrong, a wrongful act, or a wrongful breach of duty, other than a breach of contract, whether intentional or accidental, from which injury to another occurs.
small amounts of money a court may award when inmates have sustained no actual damages, but there is clear evidence that their rights have been violated
money a court may award as payment for actual losses suffered by a plaintiff, including out of pocket experiences incurred in filing the suit, other forms of monetary or material loss, and pain, suffering, and mental anguish
money court may award to punish a wrongdoer when a wrongful act was intentional and malicious or was done with reckless disregard for the rights of the victim
legitimate penological objectives
the realistic concerns that correctional officers and administrators have the integrity and security of the correctional institution and the safety of staff and inmates
a method the US Supreme Court uses to decide prisoners rights cases, weighing the rights claimed by inmates against the legitimate needs of prisons
Cruel and unusual punishment
a penalty that is grossly disproportionate to the offense or that violates todays broad and idealistic concepts of dignity. In the area of capital punishments are those that involve torture, a lingering death, or unnecessary pain
a written compact, sanctioned by a court, between parties in a civil case, specifying how disagreements between them are to be resolved
intentional and willful indifference. within the field of correctional practice, the term refers to calculated inattention to unconstitutional conditions of confinement
totality of conditions
a standard to be used in evaluating whether prison conditions are cruel and unusual
a right guaranteed by the fifth, sixth, and fourteenth amendments to the US constitution and generally understood, in legal contexts, to mean the expected course of legal proceedings according to the rules and forms established for the protection of persons right
lawsuits with no foundation in fact. They are generally brought for publicity, political, or other reasons not related to law.
he wrote a strongly critical review state prison discipline. As cruelty debases both victim and society, and punishment should not be vindictive but should aim at the reform of the convict to observe social constraints. A convicts imprisonment should consist of task, not time sentences, with release depending on the performance of a measurable amount of labour.
Believed the length of the sentence should not be an arbitrary period of time but should not be related to the rehabilitation of the offender
penal method developed about 1840 by Alexander Maconochie at the English penal colony of Norfolk Island (located east of Australia). Instead of serving fixed sentences, prisoners there were held until they had earned a number of marks, or credits, fixed in proportion to the seriousness of their offenses. A prisoner became eligible for release when he had obtained the required number of credits, which were accumulated for good conduct, hard work, and study and could be denied or subtracted for indolence or misbehaviour. The mark system symbolized the decline of the "let the punishment fit the crime" theory of correction and presaged the use of indeterminate sentences, individualized treatment, and parole. Above all, it emphasized training and performance as the chief mechanisms of reformation.
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