133 terms

Aviation Safety

STUDY
PLAY
List three strategic objectives of ICAO and discuss their importance in international aviation.
1) Transparency and sharing of safety information
2) Greater involvement of regional safety organization
3) Increased cooperation between regulators and industry stakeholders

- The ICAO is important to international aviation in that they are the organization tasked with the safety, security, and sustainability of international civil aviation.

Chapter 1 p. 5, p. 2 (respectively)
Discuss the significance of the Paris Convention of 1919.
The second Paris Convention was held to deal with the technical, operational, and organizational aspect of civil aviation, and the proceedings of the convention was ratified by 38 states.

Chapter 1 p. 3
What were the important accomplishments of the Chicago Convention of 1944?
1) Complete modernization of the basic public international law of the air.
2) Technical and operating aspects reviewed such as airworthiness of aircraft, ATC, and air navigation services.
3) Regions and regional offices established.
4) Provisional International Civil Aviation Organization (PICAO) established until the permanent ICAO came into force.
5) ICAN was dissolved and the Havana Convention was superseded.

-Additional information in each of those areas found on pg 4

Chapter 1, p. 4
List three major functions of the FAA and discuss some of the activities that support these functions.
Functions:
1) Regulating civil aviation to promote safety
2) Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics
3) Developing and operating a common system of air traffic control

Activities:
1) Safety regulation (minimum standards of manufacture, operation, and maintenance)
2) Airspace and air traffic management (safe utilization of the navigable airspace)
3) Air navigation facilities (construction and instillation of visual and electronic aids to air navigation)

- Additional functions and additional activities found on pg 4

Chapter 1, p. 6
What was the significance of the Air Mail Act of 1925?
The act allowed the Post Office Department to transfer air mail service from the military to private operators.

Chapter 1, p. 7
Describe the major provisions of the Air Commerce Act of 1926, and discuss the role of the aeronautics branch.
The major provisions authorized the regulation of aircraft and pilots in interstate and foreign commerce; provided federal support for charting and lighting airways, maintaining emergency fields, and making weather information available to pilots; authorized aeronautical research and development programs; and provided for the investigation of aviation accidents.

-The Aeronautics Branch was formed to oversee the implementation of the new laws.

Chapter 1, p. 8
Distinguish between the Civil Aeronautics Authority (CAA) and the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB).
The CAA was was created in 1938 with the passage of the Civil Aeronautics Act, and was responsible for safety programs and economic regulations which included route certificates, airline tariffs, and air mail rates. In June of 1940, under the Reorganization Act of 1939, the CAA was transferred back to the Department of Commerce, and the CAB was created and was responsible for regulatory and investigatory matters.

Chapter 1, p. 9-10
Discuss some of the factors that lead to the passage of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, and identify several of the safety provisions of this act.
The midair collision over the Grand Canyon helped promote congressional authorization of increased levels of safety-related research and more federal inspectors which ultimately lead to the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Some of the safety provisions of this act included minimum standards for the design, materials, construction, and performance of aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances, reasonable rules and regulations and minimum standards for inspections, and reasonable rules and regulations governing the reserve supply of aircraft.

- Additional safety provisions (and in more detail) found on pg 7-8.

Chapter 1, p. 7-8
What was the primary reason for the passage of the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978?
Because Congress believed that it would increase competition, enhance passenger service, and reduce commercial airline fares. There was also widespread dissatisfaction with CAB policies.

Chapter 1, p. 12
Describe the major provisions of the Airline Safety and Federal Aviation Administration Act of 2010.
A very long and detailed list of the new regulations included in the Act can be found in Chapter 1, p. 14-16.
List the four industry voluntary safety programs described in the Airline Safety and FAA Act of 2010.
1) Aviation Safety Action Plan (ASAP)
2) Flight Operational Quality Assurance Program (FOQA)
3) Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA)
4) Advanced Qualification Program (AQP)
Explain the evolution of the EPA.
Before the establishment of the EPA there was no single integrated agency to systematically address air, water, and land pollution, an issue that affected the daily lives of every person in the US. The EPA was established in the executive branch of government in 1970, and was created to enable coordinated and effective government action on behalf of the environment.

Chapter 1, p. 16
Highlight the major environmental acts relevant to aviation, giving examples of each.
1) Clean Air Act (this law included exhaust emissions of smoke from aircraft engines and venting of fuel emissions into the atmosphere).
2) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (gave the EPA authority to control hazardous waste from "cradle to grave", meaning the EPA controlled all aviation hazardous waste from generation to transportation to treatment, storage, and disposal).
3) The Noise Control Act (tightened noise emission standards permitted by aircraft in the aviation industry).

-A list of all the acts passed by the EPA found between pages 17-22. They all affected aviation in some way.

Chapter 1, p. 18, 18-19, and 21 (respectively)
Explain the evolution of OSHA.
Before OSHA was established the responsibility for occupational safety and health rested with individual states, and the industrial sector was rampant with a wide range of exposures that maimed or killed workers. Most notable was the textile fire of 1911 that killed 146 textile workers because most of the exits had been blocked in order to prevent theft. This motivated federal intervention, which ultimately lead to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Act of 1970.

Chapter 1, p. 22-23
Discuss the major OSHA acts that are relevant to aviation, giving examples of each.
1) Lead standard introduced in 1978 (affected aviation battery maintenance and aircraft painting and stripping)
2) Medical and exposure records standardized 1980 (introduced such things as testing for blood and other potentially infectious material exposures for flight attendants or other aircraft cleaning crew)
3) Electrical standards updated 1981 (affected aircraft manufacturing and assembly, and hanger and other maintenance shop activities).

Chapter 1, p. 24-25
Discuss the organizational structure of the ICAO, and describe the functions of its three governing bodies.
Organizational Structure:
ICAO headquarters are in Montreal, Canada, with seven regional offices throughout the world. These regional offices are very important to coordinate international aviation policy and standards.

Three Governing Bodies:
1) The Assembly (reviewed the complete work of the organization in the economic, legal, and technical fields)
2) The Council (gives continuing direction to the work of ICAO by adopting and incorporating ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices (SARP's))
3) The Secretariat (Keeps the Standards (Rulemaking) process of ICAO current)

Chapter 2, p. 32-34
Discuss the ICAO Rulemaking Process including the role of SARPs, PANS, and SUPPs.
The ICAO's rulemaking process has a language and process with an international focus and lexicon all its own. Standards and provisions are developed in the following categories:
- Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) which are specifications formulated in broad terms and restricted to essential requirements.
- Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) comprised of operating practices and material too detailed for Standards or Recommended Practices.
- Regional Supplementary Procedures (SUPPS), or supplementary procedures with application in their respective ICAO region. Translation: SUPPs don't have worldwide applicability like PANS, and are adapted to suit the particular region of the world.

Chapter 2, p. 35-26
Briefly describe the organizational structure of the FAA together with the function of the Air Traffic Organization and the Aviation Safety office.
The FAA is organized into 15 headquarters offices, nine field and regional offices, and two primary technical centers. Within that organization is the Air Traffic Organization (ATO) which serves as the FAA operations branch in charge of en route and oceanic services, system operations services, technical operations services, and terminal services. Aviation Safety is another important FAA organization which encompasses a wide range of Agency functions and responsibilities with many field offices such as the Office of Accident Investigation and Prevention, the Office of Aerospace Medicine, and Air Traffic Oversight Service.

Chapter 2, p. 39-42
What does Section 601(b) of the FA Act say about an air carrier's responsibility for safety?
The FA Act recognizes that the holders of air carrier certificates have a direct responsibility for providing air transportation with the highest possible degree of safety.

Chapter 2, p. 43
Why are most day-to-day inspections, reviews, and sign-offs performed by the airlines, not the FAA? Give examples of how an air carrier might demonstrate its inability or unwillingness to carry out its duties as set forth by the FA Act.
The aviation system depends on self-inspections as it is simply not possible for the FAA to make every inspection on every airplane in every location around the world. Unwillingness of an air carrier to carry out its duties set forth by the FA Act include:
- Repetitive noncompliance with minimum standards
- Lack of knowledge and understanding of minimum standards
- Inaccurate record keeping procedures

- List given in more detail on pg. 44

Chapter 2, p. 44
How has inspector workload been affected since airline deregulation? Why has it been difficult attracting inspectors to major metropolitan areas?
Inspector workload has been greatly affected by airline deregulation. Every time a new airline has been formed, another airline places a new type of aircraft into service, or two airlines have merged, flight standards have been changed - certifications that require a page-by-page approval by the FAA. As to the second question, I couldn't find the answer in the textbook and so asked my professor, and he said that as an FAA inspector of 20 years, there was no difficulty attracting inspectors to major metropolitan areas, and to ignore the question. You may want to ask your professor to see if you get a different answer.

Chapter 2, p. 45-46
Explain the tendency for inspectors to focus on records during maintenance-base inspections, and discuss how public complaints are handled.
As to the first question, I also couldn't find that in the textbook, and was again given a rather vague answer by my professor. He said it is because if there is a problem with the system, the planes, or the people, the problems will usually show up in some way in the maintenance records, so that's the easiest place to look. As for how public complaints are handled, they are directed toward the new FAA Office of Audit and Evaluation which also handles relations with the US office of Special Counsel, the Government Accountability Office, and the Department of Transportation's Office of Inspector General.

Chapter 2, p. 47
What is the major role of the FAA Flight Standards District Office (FSDO) organization?
To handle the dual functions of safety inspection and advice for airlines. In addition to scheduled airline surveillance, local offices are responsible for safety inspections of nonscheduled air taxis and other operations such as flight schools, engine overhaul shops, and private pilots.

Chapter 2, p. 45
What is the purpose of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC)?
The primary purpose of ARAC is to provide the public and earlier opportunity to participate in the FAA rulemaking process before the formal APA notification period begins.

Chapter 2, p. 47
Discuss the FAA rulemaking process, and explain the basis for the NPRM being published in the Federal Register.
The major steps in the FAA rulemaking process are clearly displayed in Figure 2-4 on pg 48. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking is published in the Federal Register so that the general public has an opportunity to comment or suggest changes that should be made.

Chapter 2, p. 49
Explain the rulemaking process of OSHA and the EPA.
OSHA can initiate new standards on its own or if petitioned by other parties of relevance. If it is determined by OSHA that a specific standard is warranted, one or more of several advisory committees may be asked to work on specific recommendations. The EPA rulemaking process is similar to that of OSHA. Initially, an authorized agency decides that a regulation may be needed, and the EPA then researches the need for the regulation and proposes it if needed. The proposal is then listed in the Federal Register (as is the proposals for OSHA) and public comment is recorded and discussed.

Chapter 2, p. 54, 58 (respectively)
Discuss the organizational structure of OSHA and describe the functions of its nine directorate offices.
Directorate of Administrative Programs (p. 50)
Directorate of Construction, and Directorate of Enforcement Programs (p. 51)
Directorate of Cooperative and State Programs, Directorate of Training, Directorate of Standards and Guidance, and Directorate of Information Technology (p. 51)
Directorate of Evaluation and Analysis, and Directorate of Technical Support and Emergency Management (p. 53).
Discuss the organizational structure of OSHA, and describe the functions of its 13 major offices.
The EPA is comprised of 13 major offices and implements its regulatory authority through 10 regions across the country. Lists and details of the 13 offices found on pages 56-58
Discuss the role of ICAO and NTSB in international aviation accident investigations. What is an accredited representative?
The ICAO is charged with accident investigations on a worldwide basis, with the law (Annex 13 of the Chicago Convention) stating that the responsibility for an investigation belongs to the member state in which the accident or incident occurred, that all ICAO states that may be involved must be promptly notified of the accident occurrence, and that other member states might be allowed to participate based upon their relationship to the accident. The NTSB is primarily charged with accident investigation in the US, however, the NTSB does participate to a greater or lesser degree in the investigation of commercial aviation accidents throughout the world. This is based on the NTSB's mandate under Annex 13 of the Chicago Convention and related international agreements.

- An accredited representative was brought up on pg 62, but the textbook never gave a definition.


Chapter 3, p. 62, 65 (respectively)
What are the primary responsibilities of the NTSB?
The primary responsibilities of the NTSB include determining the probable cause of transportation accidents, promoting transportation safety through recommended processes, conducting safety studies, evaluating the effectiveness of other government agencies transportation safety programs, and reviewing appeals of adverse actions by the US Department of Transportation

Chapter 2, p. 63-64
Explain the role of the investigator-in-charge (IIC) and the go-team.
The IIC, a senior air safety investigator with the NTSB's Office of Aviation Safety organizes, conducts, and manages the field phase of the investigation, regardless of whether a board member is also present on the scene. The go-team is a team of personnel with a wide range of accident investigation skills, wherein team duty is rotated. Immediately after one team has been dispatched, a new list is posted.

Chapter 3, p. 69, 70-71 (respectively)
What is the purpose of a public hearing?
1) Public hearings are intended primarily to expand the public record and demonstrate to the public that a complete, open, and objective investigation is being conducted.

Chapter 3, p. 74
How did passage of the Independent Safety Board Act of 1974 affect the NTSB?
The passage of the Independent Safety Board Act of 1974 placed the NTSB completely independent and outside the DOT because no Federal agency could ever properly perform investigation functions unless it's totally separate and independent from any other agency within the United States.

Chapter 2, p. 64
Describe the types of accidents investigated by the NTSB.
The NTSB investigates accidents such as those involving 49 CFR Parts 212 and 135 air carriers, those involving public aircraft, those involving ATC, training, midair collisions, newly certified aircraft/engines, and general aviation accidents.

Chapter 3, p. 65. More detailed list found there
Describe the organizational structure of the NTSB.
he NTSB is organized mainly into levels, the Top Level, the Second Level, and the Third Level. Figure 3-1 on pg. 67 shows these levels clearly.
What is the so-called party system that enables the NTSB to leverage its limited resources?
The party system allows the NTSB to bring into an investigation the technical expertise of the companies, entities, and individuals who were involved in the accident or those who might be able to provide specialized knowledge to assist in determining the probable cause. With the exception of the FAA, party status is a privilege, not a right

Chapter 3, p. 70
Identify the steps taken in a major accident investigation?
The steps in the accident investigation process start out with the go team being dispatched, filled with people such as human performance experts, and experts trained in witness interrogation. Next is the party selection process which consists of naming the various parties (specialists) that are to help with the investigation. Moving on, the attention is next given to the accident site. The time needed at the accident site can vary from between 10-14 days, however investigations can often require off-site engineering studies or lab tests. Those laboratories (the next step) performs detailed analyses on items found at the accident site. Toward the end of the accident investigation, an accident report is prepared, a public hearing is called to collect added information, and last of all, the final accident report is published, and safety recommendations are made to the FAA

Chapter 3, p. 69-74
What types of activities are performed at the NTSB's laboratory in Washington, D.C?
The Laboratory in Washington DC performs such things as metallurgy, deciphering flight data recorders, and getting the read outs of aircraft cockpit voice recorders

Chapter 3, p. 72
When are safety recommendations made?
Safety recommendations are made as soon as a problem is identified without necessarily waiting until an investigation is completed and the probable cause of an accident determined. This is because when human lives are involved, timeliness is essential

Chapter 3, p. 75
Are public hearings ever reopened?
On rare occasions they may be when significant new additional information becomes available or follow-up investigation reveals additional issues that call for an airing in a public forum such as a hearing

Chapter 3, p. 74
What information is included in the final accident report?
The final report consists of the analysis of the factual findings found during the investigation process. This report includes safety recommendations and the probable cause of the accident or incident.

Chapter 3, p. 74
Distinguish between a field investigation and a limited investigation of a general-aviation accident.
Most general aviation accident investigations are conducted by one of the NTSB's regional or field offices. In a field investigation, at least one investigator goes to the crash site. In a limited investigation, all communication is carried out by correspondence or telephone.

Chapter 3, p. 76
What is the role of the NTSB under the Aviation Disaster Family Assistance Act of 1996? What is the Transportation Disaster Assistance Office?
The ...Family Assistance Act of 1996 designated the NTSB as the lead federal agency for the coordination of federal government assets at the scene of a major aviation accident, and as the liaison between the airline and the families. The allocation of these resources is handled through the NTSB's Disaster Assistance Office who is also in charge of such things as family counseling, victim identification, and forensic services.

Chapter 3, p. 76
Describe the responsibilities of the FAA during a major accident investigation.
The FAA works very closely with the NTSB, and their accident investigation responsibilities include ensuring that all facts and circumstances leading to the accident are recorded and evaluated, all actions are taken to prevent similar accidents in the future, and determining whether performance of FAA facilities or functions was a factor.

- Much more detailed list found on pg. 77

Chapter 3, p. 77
What is the purpose of the NTSB most wanted list?
This the list that houses the NTSB's most desired aviation safety improvements.

Chapter 3, p. 78
What is the difference between accidents and incidents.
An accident is an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft that takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and all the time such persons have disembarked, and in which any person suffers a fatal or serious injury or the aircraft receives substantial damage. An incident is an occurrence other than an accident associated with the operation of an aircraft that affects or could affect the safety of operations.

Chapter 4, p. 84-85
Why do accident investigations still provide the best insight and information leading to accident prevention? What is the purpose of publicizing safety recommendations following an accident?
They provide the best insight and information leading to accident prevention because the focus of the formal investigation is directed away from the pursuit of the guilty party and toward effective preventive action. Cooperation is also fostered among those involved in the accident which facilitates the discovery of the true cause of the accident. Once the cause has been determined, safety recommendations are posted as a way of ensuring that the recommendations are reasonable and realistic in the circumstances, they enable other countries to see what action was recommended, and they can provide pressure for a prompt response.

Chapter 4, p. 85, 86 (respectively)
Explain the importance of establishing a culture of safety reporting.
Because such reporting is critical to modern aviation safety management programs, and the ICAO has long recognized that the establishment of a proper safety culture is key to effective safety reporting. For a system to be successful there must be trust, confidentiality, independence, ease of reporting, acknowledgement, and motivation and promotion.

Chapter 4, p. 87-89
What is the difference between a mandatory and voluntary reporting system?
In the mandatory system, people are required to report certain types of incidents. In a voluntary reporting system, those involved in the aviation community are invited to report hazards, discrepancies, or deficiencies in which they were involved or which they observed. The voluntary system, however, requires a trusted third party to manage the system.

Chapter 4, p. 90
What characteristic of voluntary systems is particularly important?
Confidentiality, and because of this, voluntary systems tend to be more successful than mandatory systems in collecting human factor related information.

Chapter 4, p. 90
What is included in the FAA Accident Incident Data System? What is the purpose of the Service Difficulty Reporting System?
AIDS mentioned on pg. 91. SDRS are reports filed by air carriers, repair stations, manufacturers, FAA inspectors, and others concerning specific types of mechanical problems, aircraft failures, or malfunctions.

Chapter 4, p. 91
How does the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing System work?
The FAA developed this system to enable users to perform integrated searches across multiple databases part of an evolving data warehouse of safety data which contains weblinks and crosslinks to a variety of sources.

Chapter 4, p. 91
Describe the salient features of ASAP, FOQA, AQP, and LOSA.
ASAP - has a goal of preventing accidents and incidents by identifying unsafe practices and correcting them (Chapter 4, p 92)

FOQA - is a flight operational quality assurance program involving collecting and analyzing data recorded during flight to improve safety (p. 93)

AQP - has a goal of increasing aviation safety by using innovative training and qualification concepts (p. 93)

LOSA - is a voluntary formal process that uses highly trained observers to collect safety-related data on regularly scheduled airline flights (p. 93)
Describe the database system managed by the NTSB.
The NTSB is responsible for the Aviation Incident/Accident Database which contains information on every known civil aviation accident in the United States.

Chapter 4, p. 95
Why was NASA chosen to manage the Aviation Safety Reporting System.
Because any successful voluntary incident reporting system requires a trusted third party, in this case, someone other than the FAA or the NTSB.

Chapter 4, p. 90
What is the purpose of flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders? How might they be used for accident prevention purposes?
FDRs and CVRs were initially installed to assist accident investigators in determining accident causes, particularly for catastrophic accidents to large aircraft, and that belief spread to many other countries. Many now routinely use FDR and CVR information for accident prevention. These devices can help prevent accidents by making the specifics of previous accidents known and therefore predictable and preventable. FDRs and CVRs monitor selected parameters of the flight, and records voices and cockpit sounds.

Chapter 4, p. 98
What is the ICAO ADREP? Give several examples of information provided by ICAO and based on ADREP data.
ICAO Accident/Incident Data Reporting System is the system that forwards notification of an accident or incident with minimum delay and by the most suitable means available to the following:
- State of registry of the aircraft
- State of the operator
- State of design
- State of manufacture
(examples of information provided by ICAO).

Chapter 4, p. 99
Discuss OSHA's recording requirements for injuries and illnesses and the reasons for collecting this data.
Such things are recorded for several purposes. OSHA collects data through the OSHA Data Initiative (ODI) to help direct its programs and measure its own performance. Inspectors also use the data during inspections to help direct their efforts to the hazards that are hurting workers. This information is also used by employers and employees to implement safety and health programs at individual workplaces. OSHA requires that every employer covered by the OSHA act with 11 or more employees record and report all employee occupational deaths, injuries, and illnesses on OSHA Forms 300 and 301. Employers with 10 or fewer employees are required to keep injury and illness records only if OSHA specifically notifies them in writing. However, all employees covered by the OSHA Act must report all deaths and events that cause in-patient hospitalization of 3 or more employees to OSHA within 8 hours of being aware of the events.

Chapter 4, p. 101
Discuss the role that BLS plays in recording and analyzing occupational injury/illness data.
Records provide the base data for the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Annual Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses which is ultimately the nation's primary source of occupational injury and illness data. Each year, the BLS uses a stratified random data collection survey process to collect injury and operational data which it then analyzes, categorizes, and publishes into groupings called Standard Industrial Classification Codes (SIC).

Chapter 4, p. 101-102
Discuss some of the salient features of the EPA's hazardous substance reporting requirements.
Under federal environmental laws, any facility or vessel must report to government authorities about any hazardous substance that is released into the environment in quantities that exceed a threshold amount referred to as reportable quantities (RQs). The EPA regulations also cover a variety of reporting requirements that include
- Medium (environments) into which the release is applicable
- Listing of the hazardous substances together with their quantities
- Persons responsible for reporting
- Time line for reporting

-More detailed list found on pg 103

Chapter 4, p. 103
What does 40 CFR Part 87 address?
The sections within this part deal with setting limits on exhaust emissions of smoke from aircraft engines, ban venting of fuel emissions into the atmosphere from certain types of aircraft engines, and require the elimination of intentional discharge to the atmosphere of fuel drained from fuel nozzle manifolds after engines are shut down.

Chapter 4, p. 106
Why is the accident rate a better measure of safety than accident counts are?
Because accident counts by themselves cannot be reliably used to measure relative safety among organizations and their products. For this reason the accident rate, which is the number of accidents divided by some common base variable (flight hours, departures, miles flown) is a more valid indicator of relative safety than just accident counts.

Chapter 5, p. 111
Discuss some of the issues to be aware of in analyzing and comparing commercial aviation accident statistics.
The fact is that not many statistics can be compared straight across the board. Small aircraft statistics cannot be compared to those of larger aircraft. Aircraft that have accidents while on long hauls over the ocean cannot be compared to aircraft that had accidents on take off or landing. General aviation accidents cannot be compared to commercial aviation accidents, and so forth. So when comparing accident statistics, it is important to remember that they can only be compared to similar type statistics which fill the same criteria.

Chapter 5, p. 111
What are hull-loss accidents and what are their primary cause? Describe the hull-loss accident trend since the early 1970's.
A hull loss is defined as airplane damage that is beyond economic repair (p. 111), and studies show that accidents involving hull losses has been fairly stable for the past 35 years (p. 114).
What is the most critical phase of flight? What are some lessons that can be learned from the Boeing summary?
It goes without saying that takeoffs and landings are the riskiest phases of flight where most accidents occur (p. 111), and from the Boeing summary we can see that if control limits are applied to the data involving all accidents including hull losses, the jet airplane transportation process has been under statistical control for a number of years. However, even if this low accident rate remains constant over the next few years, we can expect to see an increase in the actual number of hull loss accidents each year as the fleet increases in number of departures (p. 114).
Describe the general trend in aviation accidents during the 1980's, 90's and 2000s.
1980's - p. 124
1990's - p. 127
2000's - p. 131
Discuss future ICAO safety concepts and programs under the Global Aviation Safety Plan.
The ICAO developed the GASP and published 12 Gloabal Safety Initiatives in 2007 which were used as working tools to enhance international aviation safety where needed the most. In October 2010 the ICAO adopted two specific resolutions, the ICAO Audit Programme (USOAP) and the ICAO Global Planning for Safety (Resolution A37-4).

Chapter 5, p. 135
Why do we model accidents?
The goal of nonaccident data analysis and modeling is to conduct a preemptive strike on the very first accident to prevent it from occurring by addressing the root cause of the accident. Accident modeling assists with understanding how accidents happen so that measures can be taken to prevent potential hazards from materializing.

Chapter 6, p. 141
Explain Reason's Swiss cheese model of defensive screens to include the concept of latent and active failures.
Reason's accident causation model was published in 1990 to illustrate how human factors at various levels of the organization can lead to accidents. He explains that before an active human failure occurs, there are certain latent conditions in the organization which are the result of management action or inaction, and that human error is the active end result rather than the root cause of accidents. This model requires that multiple layers (or defensive screens) be designed to prevent hazards or system failures from cascading into accidents. These screens, however, can develop holes or flaws through safety deficiencies, and as the number and size of the holes increase, so too do the chances of accidents or incidents. When holes in each of the defense layers line up, an accident occurs.

Chapter 6, p. 141-142
Discuss the SHELL Model. Why is Liveware always in the center?
SHELL (liveware to SOFTWARE, liveware to HARDWARE, liveware to ENVIRONMENT, liveware to LIVEWARE, and liveware to LIVEWARE) is an interface in constant interaction that is closely matched to the human element. Liveware is always in the center because the human person which that term represents is always in the middle interacting with the other SHELL components.

Chapter 6, p. 145
Why can it be said that management plays a predominant role when examining the five-factors model?
The responsibility for safety and accident prevention in any organization ultimately rests with management because only management controls the allocation of resources.

Chapter 6, p. 151
Why do you think over the years the number of accidents caused by machines has declined, while those attributable to man have risen?
As a result of refinements over the years, the number of accidents caused by the machine has declined, but those caused by human factors has not. People are naturally reluctant to admit to their limitations for a variety of reasons (loss of face, fear of job loss, worry about being blamed) and therefore, information on the human factor aspects of accidents is not readily forthcoming.

Chapter 6, p. 149
The medium or environment includes two parts: the natural environment and the artificial environment. Compare and contrast the two.
Natural environments include rain, ice, lightning, mountains, and volcanic eruptions. Artificial environments can be further divided into physical (airports, ATC, navigation aids) and nonphysical often called system software (procedural components that determine how a system should function).

Chapter 6, p. 151
Give several examples of how management can influence the safety program. How can an effective safety program affect efficiency and cost-effectiveness?
Management's involvement and the resources it allocates have a profound effect on the quality of the organization's accident prevention program. Management is also tasked with providing the proper working environment, adequate training and supervision, and the right facilities and equipment. If they do this, including the proper allocation of resources, it has been shown that the accident prevention programs will then turn out to be more cost-effective in the long run in addition to increasing people performance, reducing waste, and increasing the overall efficiency of the organization.

Chapter 6, p. 152
Outline some of the modern avionics equipment found in the glass cockpit of today's commercial airliner.
Excellent and detailed list found on p. 147
What is the purpose of the electronic flight information system (EFIS)?
It provides a combined presentation of attitude, flight director, instrument landing system deviation, flight mode annunciation, and speed and altitude information.

Chapter 6, p. 147
Explain the concept of the organizational accident.
An organization with a good safety record is not necessarily a safe organization as good fortune rather than good management may be responsible for what appears to be a safe operation.

Chapter 6, p. 152
Discuss the significance of human error in major aircraft accidents.
Despite an excellent safety record in the US aviation system, many studies attribute human error as a factor in at least two thirds of commercial aviation accidents where the underlying problem is poor human decision making. There are three reasons why people make poor decisions. a) they have incomplete information, b) they use inaccurate or irrelevant information, or c) they process the information poorly.

Chapter 7, p. 156
What are the seven major factors that affect human performance? Give examples of each.
1) Physical factors (size, strength, age)
2) Physiological factors (low blood sugar, irregular heart rates)
3) Psychological factors (mental and emotional states)
4) Psychosocial factors (mental states due to deaths in the family)
5) Hardware factors (equipment design, displays)
6) Task factors (the nature of the task being performed)
7) Environmental factors (noise, temperature, humidity)

Chapter 7, p. 158-161
Define human error and explain the HFACS method used to classify human error.
HFACS is a systems approach whereby human error is not the cause but rather the result of a larger problem inside the organization. Four barrier levels exist to help prevent accidents:
- Organizational Influences
- Unsafe Supervision
- Preconditions for Unsafe Acts
- The Unsafe Act Itself (the active failure)

- I never felt like this answer was a slam dunk, but I couldn't find a better answer.

Chapter 7, p. 161
Explain the differences in the Airbus and Boeing aircraft design strategies.
The Airbus general approach has been to remove the pilot from the loop and turn certain functions over to sophisticated automation. Hoeing's approach, however, is to never bypass the crew: Sophisticated devices inform the the crew of a need, and in some cases, a step-by-step procedure, but in the end, it is the crew who must authorize and conduct the procedure.

Chapter 7, p. 168
Describe how air traffic is controlled.
Air traffic controllers operate primarily from three types of facilities: airport traffic control towers, terminal radar approach and control facilities, and air route control centers, and in the process, control four categories of airspace: positive controlled airspace, controlled airspace, uncontrolled airspace, and special use airspace.

Chapter 8, p. 179
Discuss some of the early developments in jet engine technology that were included in the Boeing B-47 and Dash 80 aircraft.
Highly swept wing, very wide speed range, long duration high altitude operation, high wing loading, a clean aerodynamic design, and pod mounted engines

- The Dash 80 brought back tricycle landing gear for better stopping

Chapter 9, p. 202, 206-207
What was the purpose of pod mounted engine instillation?
To prevent failure mode (passive failure or a disk rupture)

Chapter 9, p. 200
What were some of the challenges to safety resulting from such radical airframe designs as highly swept wings, high wing loading, increased speeds, and long duration flights at high altitudes?
How to take off and land, stopping considerations (stopping distance), control system capability over a large speed range and flutter, and structural integrity for the wing platform and speed range.

Chapter 9, p. 202
Describe some technological improvements in the following stopping systems: antiskid, fuse plugs in the wheels, engineered materials arrestor system, wing spoilers, thrust reversers.
More easily answered by just looking at pages 204-205
What is meant by a fail safe design?
This rule required that a specified level of residual strength be maintained after complete failure, or obvious partial failure of a single principal structure element.

Chapter 9, p. 210
List and discuss the parameters that define the age of an aircraft.
The number of flight cycles, and the number of flight hours accumulated in service.

Chapter 9, p. 210
What are some of the technological advances that enhanced the flight handling characteristics of today's generation of aircraft?
Powered controls and low speed stall characteristics.

Chapter 9, p. 206-207
Who are the three major participants in the structural safety process? Describe their individual roles.
1) Manufacturers - design, build, support aircraft in service.
2) Airlines - operate, inspect, maintain.
3) Authorities - rules, regulations, airline maintenance performance.

Chapter 9, p. 209
How do ice and precipitation affect airplane operation. Describe several technologies designed to address this problem.
Ice and precipitation decrease performance due to even small amounts of roughness on the leading edge. In 2009 the FAA published a final rule regarding to new transport aircraft designs dictating that they must incorporate one of three methods into detecting icing and activating the airframe ice protection system:
- An ice detection system that automatically activates or alerts the pilots to turn on the ice protection system.
- A definition of visual signs of ice buildup on a specified surface.
- The identification of temperature and moisture conditions conducive to airframe icing.

Chapter 9, p. 219
What are some of the approach solutions to the problems of turbulence, winds, wind shear, ice and precipitation, and volcanic ash?
Turbulence - High Altitude Clean Air Turbulence Program (p. 215)
Wind shear - The three pronged approach (216)
Volcanic ash - Forecasting the volcanic ash (p. 217-218)
Ice and Precipitation - New designs must have one of three methods discussed in the question above (p. 219)
List and briefly describe at least five flight deck technology changes that have made a significant contribution to improving safety.
Excellent list found on p. 220
What is the purpose of GPWS, TCAS, and EICAS?
GPWS - Prevents controlled flight into terrain (p. 227)
TCAS - Prevents midair collisions (p. 225)
EICAS - Engine indicating and crew alerting system (p. 225)
What are the basic functions of the flight management system (FMS)?
The flight management system is a combination of the flight management computer system (FMCS), the digital flight control system (DFCS), the autothrottle (A/T), and the internal reference system (IRS). The FMS performs:
- Automatic flight control
- Performance management
- Precision navigation
- System monitor

Chapter 9, p. 227
What is computational fluid dynamics (CFD)?
Research that uses math to analyze and solve problems involving fluid flows

- I'm fairly certain the book didn't actually answer this question and I found it online instead. CFD is mentioned on pg 230, but I'm almost positive I remember it as not actually giving a definition.

Chapter 9, p. 230
What is the purpose of the engineering simulation?
It was developed during the transition from props to jets and allowed for a simulated training field. The simulator took two paths: flight simulation, and engineering simulation. The engineering simulation allowed the engineer and test pilot to evaluate design options.

Chapter 9, p. 233
What data is recorded on the FDR and CVR?
The only note I made for this question was: "no definitive list given. see pg 234-235) however, one of the earlier questions from another chapter gives a good answer.
Describe some of the problems and improvements needed to gather better weather information.
Real time "big picture" integrated display of weather, and airborn weather radar with vertical and plan cross-sectional views.

Chapter 9, p. 235
What are some of the major features likely to be present in the flight deck of the future?
Digital communications to accommodate high speed data to and from the flight deck, WAAS/GBAS approaches and landings, GPS based enroute navigation, and the replacement of VHF communication to digital.

Chapter 9, p. 236
Which act was responsible for initiating the airport certification process and what were its salient features?
The Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970. It established minimum safety standards for the operation of airports to ensure the safety of the flying public.

Chapter 10, p. 244
What part number regulates airport certification?
14 CFR Part 139

Chapter 10, p. 245
Discuss the highlights of the airport certification process and their significance.
An airport that meets FAR Part 139 criteria is issued an Airport Operating Certificate (AOC). To obtain a certificate, an airport must maintain operational and safety standards under the 4 categories found on p. 245
What are the 4 classes of airport certifications and what are their differences?
Great list found on p. 245
What is the Airport Certification Manual and why is it so significant?
The ACM is a working document that outlines the means and procedures used to comply with the requirements of Part 139.

Chapter 10, p. 246
What are some elements required in the Airport Certification Manual?
This list consists of 29 items found on pg 246-247
List and explain the required elements of an Airport Emergency Plan.
Emergency plans should include aircraft accidents, bomb threats, sabotage, hijackings, major fires, natural disasters, and power failure.

Chapter 10, p. 248
List five to seven safety hazards associated with each of the following:
- Airport terminal buildings
- Hangars and maintenance shops
- Ramp operations
- Aviation fuel handling
- Aircraft rescue and firefighting (ARFF)
- Deicing
Each of these items discussed in detail between pages 249-260
What is a runway incursion?
Any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle, or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take off of aircraft.

Chapter 10, p. 261
List and explain the different categories of runway incursions.
A - Serious incident in which a collision is narrowly avoided.
B - An incident in which separation decreases and there is potential for collision.
C - An incident characterized by ample time and distance to avoid a collision.
D - An incident that meets the definition of a runway incursion such as the incorrect presence of a single vehicle.
E - Insufficient information or inconclusive evidence precludes a severity assessment.

Chapter 10, p. 262
Describe the airport surface operational environment.
A complex system of markings, lighting, and signage coupled with layouts that vary by airport.

Chapter 10, p. 262
List individual groups together with their functions and the equipment they used for airport surface operations.
p. 263-264
Discuss runway incursion trends with respect to rates and severity.
They have remained steady.
- 66% pilot deviation
- 18% vehicle/pedestrian deviations
- 16% operational errors by ATC

Chapter 10, p. 263
List and explain several strategies to minimize the occurrence of runway incursions.
1) Safety management systems implementation.
2) Training and education outreach programs.
3) Technology development.

Chapter 10, p. 265
What is being done in training and outreach programs to prevent runway incursions?
p. 265
List and explain the technologies being proposed to eliminate runway incursions.
p. 265
What is the difference between safety and security?
Safety is protection against the threat of an accident, or rather, measures taken against the threat. Security is protection from threats motivated by hostility or malice.
- Safety = unintentional acts
- Security = intentional acts

Chapter 11, p. 270
Give three examples of attack categories on civil aviation.
1) Hijackings
2) Bombings
3) Armed assaults

Chapter 11, p. 271
Describe the international response to terrorism by ICAO and the world community.
Several conventions were held between 1963 and 2010 to deal with the issues. A list of these specific conventions found between pages 274-275
What is the Air Marshal Program and why was it instituted?
It was part of the government's anti hijacking program initiated in 1968 to prevent hijackers from diverting planes to Cuba.

Chapter 11, p. 279
Discuss the hijacking era. When did it end?
Large numbers of hijackings took place during the specific era from 1968 to 1987.

Chapter 11, p. 275
What was the reason for the 9/11 Commission? What impact did its recommendations have on the US intelligence community?
It was a bipartisan commission created by congress and the president to prepare a full account of the circumstances surrounding 9/11, and to provide recommendations designed to guard against future attacks.

- Intelligence impacts list p. 283

Chapter 11, p. 283
Explain the operation of the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC)
The intent was to build a unity of effort combining all strategic intelligence and operational planning under one office.

Chapter 11, p. 286
Discuss some of the problems encountered in the gathering and analysis of intelligence for security purposes.
p. 286-296
Give an example of four different security devices used to prevent weapons and explosives from entering an aircraft, and explain the workings of these devices.
- Imaging technologies
- Explosive trace detection technology
- Explosive detection systems
- Metal detectors
- Strengthened baggage containers
- Cockpit door reinforcement

Chapter 11, p. 290-296
Discuss the evolution (history) of the SMS principles.
1970's - Emphasis was on quality management and human factors
1990's - Emphasis on organizational factors

Chapter 12, p. 334
Describe the fundamental components and salient features of SMS - The Four Pillars.
1) Safety Policy - Senior management commitment to improve safety
2) Safety Risk Management - Determines the need for and adequacy of risk controls based on assessment and acceptance of risk.
3) Safety Assurance - Evaluates the effectiveness of risk control.
4) Safety Promotion - Training, and communication to create a positive safety culture.

Chapter 12, p. 335
Compare and contrast the differences between a hazard and a safety risk.
Hazard = A condition, object, or activity with the potential of causing injuries to personnel, damage to equipment, or deduction of the ability to perform a prescribed function.
Risk = The assessment of the consequences of a hazard, taking as a reference the worst foreseeable situation.

Chapter 12, p. 337
Discuss the significance of the PxS=R risk management formula.
P = Probability that a given hazard might materialize
S = Severity of consequences
R = Expected risk

Chapter 12, p. 337
What is the purpose of the risk assessment matrix?
A chart that helps you guess the severity and likelihood of a hazard.

Chapter 12, p. 339-340
Describe the relationship between Safety Risk Management and safety assurance.
Safety assurance provides feedback on how the safety risk management process is performing.

Chapter 12, p. 340
What is the concept of ALARP and why is it significant?
"As low as reasonably possible"

Chapter 12, p. 336
Describe the three principle elements of the safety assurance process.
1) Performance monitoring and measurement
2) Management of change - New hazards considered
3) Continuous improvement

Chapter 12, p. 341
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