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APUSH Unit 3 Study Guide

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Describe the government of the Articles of Confederation and indicate its achievements and failures.
The articles of confederation
Explain the crucial role of Shay's rebellion in sparking the movement for a new Constitution.
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Explain the central concerns that motivated the anti federalist, and indicate their social, economic, and political differences with federalist.
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Describe the process of ratification of the constitution and explain why the federalist won.
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Indicate the ways in which the New constitution government was "conservative", yet preserved and central the central principals of the American Revolution.
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Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.
James Madison
(1809-1813) and (1813-1817) The War of 1812, the US declares war on Great Britain. In 1814, the British (technically the Canadians) set fire to the Capitol. The Treaty of Ghent ends the war in 1814., The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. Favored strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Checks and Balances
A major principle of the American system of government. Helps maintain separation of powers so that no one branch gets too powerful. Explained in Federalist 51. Examples: President vetos laws; Senate confirms appointments & treaties; Congress impeaches president & judges...
Popular Sovereignty
A belief that ultimate power resides in the people.
Consent of the governed
The idea that government derives its authority by sanction of the people.
Republicanism
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed.
States' Rights
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Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
Great Compromise
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. This resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.
Electoral College
A certain number of electors from each state proportional to and seemingly representative of that state's population. each elector chooses a candidate believing they are representing their constituency's choice. The candidate who receives a higher proportion of electoral votes within a state receives all the electoral votes for that state.
Land Ordinance of 1785
divided much of the country into a system of townships and ranges to facilitate the sale of land to settlers
Three-Fifths Compromise
Agreement that each slave counted as three-fifths of a person in determining representation in the House for representation and taxation purposes (negated by the 13th amendment)
Northwest Ordinance
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
Anti federalist
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.
Federalist
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Shay's Rebellion
Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.
Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan
Virgina Plan: a entirely new form of national government. It would have 3 beaches: judicial, executive, and legislative. The legislature would be bicameral (two houses) and the number of representatives be proportionate to each states population. Gave more power to the state.
Great Compromise
The Federalist
Essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788.
Indicate why George Washington was pivotal to inaugurating the new federal government
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Describe the various means Alexander Hamilton used to put the federal government on sound financial footing
As the nation's first Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton's far reaching vision put the United States on an stable financial basis and promoted national unity. His Treasury took over state debts as well as debts owed by the national government, and funded them with long-term national debt, which in turn was paid by a new tariff on imports and a tax on whiskey.
Explain how the conflict over Hamilton's policies lead to the emergence of the first political parties
Federalist dominance during the 1790's generated a strong Republican counter-attack that captured the national government in 1801 Rarely has partisan conflict engendered so much fear, hatred and bitterness as in the 1790's. Each party accused the other of desiring to subvert the established order and of harboring dangerous partiality for foreign nations and alien ideologies.
Explain why Washington negotiated the conciliatory Jay's Treaty with the British and why it provoked Jeffersonian outrage
During this time, the French revolution had begun. British navy attacked american merchant ships and captured their men to use in war(known as impressment). Patriotic americans were outraged and demanded something to be done. However, Hamilton's economic policies to revive the U.S economy depended on trade with British in the carribeans. Washington in a last minute decision, decided to avert war and sent John Jay to negotiate
Describe the poisonous political atmosphere that produced the Alien and Sedation Acts and the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
The Alien and Sedition Acts, as well as the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were created as a consequence of the disagreement of what type of constitution, and government to set up. There were differing opinions on whether state governments should have more power, or if a central government should be more powerful.
Describe the contrasting membership and principals of the Hamiltonian Federalists and the Jeffersonian Republicans
the Federalist's view that the Constitution should be viewed "loosely", while Republicans viewed the Constitution literally.
John Adams
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
Thomas Jefferson
3rd President of the United States , He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
John Jay
American delegate who signed Treaty of Paris; New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated with Britain and Spain on behalf of the Confederation; he later became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court and negotiated the Jay Treaty
Talleyrand
French statesman and diplomat noted for his capacity for political survival, who held high office during the French Revolution, under Napoleon, at the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy, and under King Louis-Philippe.
Strict Interpretation
whatever is not mentioned specifically in the Constitution cannot be done
Loose Interpretation
A braod way of interpreting the Constitution that allows the Federal Government to take actions that the Constitution doesn't forbid it from taking. Favored by Alexander Hamilton as a way of creating the National Bank.
Implied Powers
Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions.
Tariff
A tax on imported goods
Agrarian
relating to land; relating to the management or farming of land
pertaining to land or its cultivation; Ex. agrarian reform
Excise Tax
A per unit tax on a specific good or service
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Resolutions of 1798 condemning the Alien and Sedition Acts that were submitted to the federal government by the Virginia and Kentucky state legislatures. The resolutions tested the idea that state legislatures could judge the constitutionality of federal laws and nullify them.
Nullification
A legal theory that a state in the US has the right to invalidate any federal law that the state deems unconstitutional. John C Calhoun was the foremost proponent.
States have the right to nullify an unconstitutional law passed. They declare that law invalid.
Bank of the US
The central bank of the nation designed to facilitate the issuance of a stable national currency and to provide a convenient means of exchange for the people. The bank was responsible for providing the nation economic stability.
Bill of Rights
First 10 amendments to the Constitution
French Revolution
The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
Jay's Treaty
Treaty signed in 1794 between the U.S. And Britain in which Britain sought to improve trade relations and agreed to withdraw from forts in the northwest territory
Convention of 1800
Agreement to formally dissolve the United States' treaty with France, originally signed during the Revolutionary War. The difficulties posed by America's peacetime alliance with France contributed to Americans' longstanding opposition to entangling alliances with foreign powers.
Neutrality Proclomation
Washington Announced the US would NOT take sides during the European wars
Whiskey Rebellion
Farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey; the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion; showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem
Pickney Treaty
1795 - Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans.
Alien and Sedation Act
Alien Acts -The President could deport any alien living in the country that may pose a threat to America and extended the citizenship wait from 5 to 14 years. Sedition Act -People could be fined or jailed for criticizing the government. This was designed to try to prevent rebellion, but took away the right of free-speech. Both acts were met with opposition.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
The U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River
Treaty of Greenville
Gave America all of Ohio after General Mad Anthony Wayne battled and defeated the Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. 1795 Allowed Americans to explore the area with peace of mind that the land belonged to America and added size and very fertile land to America.
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
XYZ Affair
1798 - A commission had been sent to France in 1797 to discuss the disputes that had arisen out of the U.S.'s refusal to honor the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. President Adams had also criticized the French Revolution, so France began to break off relations with the U.S. Adams sent delegates to meet with French foreign minister Talleyrand in the hopes of working things out. Talleyrand's three agents told the American delegates that they could meet with Talleyrand only in exchange for a very large bribe. The Americans did not pay the bribe, and in 1798 Adams made the incident public, substituting the letters "X, Y and Z" for the names of the three French agents in his report to Congress.
Compare and contrast the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution, especially in regard to specific powers granted by each to the federal government.
The articles of confederation were more focused on power of the states while the Constitution is much more focused on the power of the federal government.
Evaluate the relative importance of the 1780's and the 1790's regarding the development of America's political and economic foundations.
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