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unique type of RNA, function as catalysts, have active sites that bind to substrates, and are not used up in a chemical reaction
biological oxidation resulting in the removal of hydrogen atoms (which is made up of one proton and one electron)
ATP is usually generated when a high-energy (P) is directly transferred from a phosphorylated compound (a substrate) to ADP
electrons are transferred from organic compounds to one group of electron carriers (usually to NAD+ and FAD)
occurs only in photosynthetic cells, which contain light-trapping pigments such as chlorophylls
pentose phosphate pathway
or hexose monophosphate shunt, operates simultaneously with glycolysis and provides a means for the breakdown of five-carbon sugars (pentoses) as well as glucose
from each molecule of glucose, it produces two molecules of NADPH and one molecule of ATP for use in cellular biosynthetic reactions
or simply respiration, defined as an ATP-generating process in which molecules are oxidized and the final electron acceptor is (almost always) an inorganic molecule
does not use oxygen in respiration, and may even be killed by it; the final electron acceptor is an inorganic molecule other than O2 or, rarely, an organic molecule
also called the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or citric acid cycle, is a series of biochemical reactions in which the large amount of potential chemical energy stored in acetyl CoA is released step by step
the process in a preparatory step that lose one molecule of CO2 and become a two-carbon compound (acetyl group) - attaches to coenzyme A through a high-energy bond, resulting in acetyl coenzyme A. During this reaction, pyruvic acid is also oxidized and NAD+ is reduced to NADH.
electron transport system
consists of a sequence of carrier molecules that are capable of oxidation and reduction
proteins contain flacin, a coenzyme derived from riboflavin (vitamin B2) and are capable of performing alternating oxidations and reductions
proteins with an iron-containing group (heme) capable of existing alternately as a reduced form (Fe2+)
Explains how chemical reactions occur and how certain factors affect the rates of those reactions
Substances that can speed up a chemical reaction without being permanently altered themselves
a temporary binding of enzyme and reactants, which enables the collisions to be more effective and lowers the activation energy of the reaction
Turnover Number of enzyme
maximum number of substrate molecules an enzyme molecule converts to product per second
Enzyme Classification- Oxidation-reduction in which oxygen and hydrogen are gained or lost
Enzyme Classification-Transfer of functional groups, such as an amino group, acetyl group, or phosphate group
Enzyme Classification-Joining of two molecules (using enerhy usually derived from the breakdown of ATP)
Two of the most important coenzyme in cellular metabolism
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Phosphate(NADP+)
Flavin coenzyme contain derivatives of the B vitamin riboflavin and also are electron carriers
Flavin mononucleotide (FMN)
Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)
The surface of the substrate contacts a specific region of the surface of the enzyme molecule
Enzyme inhibitors which fill the active site of an enzyme and compete with the normal substrate for the active site
Enzyme inhibitors which do not compete with the substrate for the active site; instead they interact with another part of the enzyme
the inhibitor binds to a site on the enzyme other than the substrate's binding site (allosteric site)
Feedback or end-product inhibition
biochemical control mechanism which stops the cell from wasting chemical resources by making more of a substance than it needs
a unique type RNA which functions as catalysts, have active sites that bind to substrates, and are not used up in a chemical reaction
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