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Psych test number 3
Terms in this set (124)
Name the Four components of Emotion
• Physiological processes
• Expressive behavior
• Cognitive appraisal
• Emotional experience
The physiological Component
The autonomic Nervous system
Sympathetic-"fight or flight"
Parasympathetic-calm relaxed feeling
The Expressive Component
when you feel an emotion when you're happy and sad
What does the facial EMG study show?
Positive emotions increase activity in cheeks *smiling
Negative emotions increase activity in forehead and brow area
The Cognitive Component
what you think influences your emotions
What is Counter factual thinking?
imagining what might have been
we feel the emotion much more strongly by being able to imagine the situation
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Emotion originates in the thalamus
"Body" (physiological systems) and "mind" (emotional experience) are independently activated at the same time
James-Lange Theory of Emotion
Emotion arises from Physiological arousal
-Happiness comes from smiling
-Sadness comes from crying
Facial-feedback hypothesis, the hypothesis that changes in facial expression can produce corresponding changes in emotion
When frowning what type of mood are you in?
When smiling what type of mood are you in?
Two factor theory of emotion
Physiological arousal- increasing heart rate,rapid breath and sweaty palms
Cognitive Label- attribute source of arousal to a cause
A state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings and tendencies toward action
When experiencing intense emotion what two hormones are released
list the types of Emotional Leakage
Gaze, Gesture and touch
Do men or women recall emotional events more intensely and vividly?
Do men or women experience emotional event more intensely?
What are the possible reasons for the differences in physiology and intensity between men and women?
o Males autonomic nervous system is more reactive than females
o Men are more likely to rehearse angry thoughts which maintains anger
o Women are more likely to ruminate which maintains depression
Do men or women become angry over issues related to their partners disregard?
Do men or women become angry damage to property or problems with strangers?
Do men or women work hard appearing warm, happy and making sure others are happy?
Do men or women work hard at persuading others they are stern, aggressive and unemotional
Why are married people happier?
• Two way street, happiness leads to marriage or is it marriage leads to happiness
• Marriage reduces loneliness
• Only true for happy marriages
- Unhappily married very unhappy
• 3 out of 4 Americans - spouse is best friend
• 4 in 5 would marry them again
The Nature-Nurture debate
the debate over the extent to which behavior is determined by genetics and the environment
Children who are similar to adopted parents
children who are similar to biological parents
Identical twins share all their genes or half their genes?
Fraternal twins share all their genes or had their genes?
how many cells does the human body have?
100 million cells
how many chromosomes are in a nucleus?
46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs
what is gene dominance?
when a person possesses differing genes for the same trait, one is often dominate over the other
after 3 days of fertilization, 60-70 cells formed
Prenatal development divided into trimesters
First: Zygote, embryo, fetus
Second: body parts and neurons in place
During the development of the fetus what occurs after 20 weeks?
will move from bright light
During the development of the fetus what occurs after 6 months
can detect a human voice
Are girls or boys more active in the belly
What is habituation?
the more you see the toy the less interesting your in it
Sandman: buzzing instrument to measure heartbeat
the heart rate of the fetus will speed up when introduced to some thing new
Name the three teratogens?
Substances, diseases, mom's stress level
Alcohol and cigs
AIDS and Rubella (German Measles)
Mom's stress level
Results in Babies with attention difficulties, anxiety and unusual social behavior
Babies who are exposed to positive environments show.....
intelligence, relates to exposure to classic music
• Human babies much less developed than other animals
• Cant walk, little muscle control
• Brain's are not developed (size of birth canal)
• Need care for a long time
• Humans attracted to babies
• Animals are born more intelligently
• Babies have giant heads because our brain is large
The developing brain
• At birth, neurons are in place, but few connections
• During first year, axons grow, dendrites multiply, connections form
• Over next few years, active connections strengthen
Sensory Capacities of a newborn
• Born sensitive to range of female voices
• Babies cant hear low voice tones
• Like smell of lactating women (even if bottle fed)
• Swallowing, breathing, coughing, blinking,sneexing
• Palmar Grasp- when a babies grabs your finger and doesn't like go
o Babinski-take a babies foot is stroked from heel towards toes, the lift toes should lift up
o rooting-babies stroked at corner of mouth her head will turn toward the finger and she will make sucking motions
Temperaments within infants
Difficult: never happy
Easy: always happy
Slow to warm up-tend to appear happy until change in environment
When babies approach how do they see things?
When babies avoid how do they see things?
Difficult- look at the world in a dangerous view
Physical and Motor development: getting control
Growing: 50% first year
75% second year 1/2 size final growth
What is the order of muscle control?
- Milestones in Motor Development
2-3 months depth perception
2-3 months who objects- tell what one thing is
hearing comes right away
Assimilation- fitting new objects and events into categories
Ex) assimilated a schema when two adults are married they had children, so when the child assumed that when a couple is together they must have a kid otherwise they're only siblings
Accommodation- modifying a schema into new events
around what ages to children gradually assimilate and then accommodate the spherical shape of earth
preschool to 5th grade
In Piaget's stages, what is the name of the first stage and what occurs
Sensorimotor (0-2 years)
infants learn through concrete actions
In Piaget's stages, what is the name of the second stage and what occurs
Pre-operations (2-7 years)
language and thoughts develop
In Piaget's stages , what is the name of the third stage and what occurs
concrete operations (7-12 years)
conservation on how liquid is the same no matter how it looks
In Piaget's stages, what is the name of the fourth stage and what occurs
Formal operations, (12 and up)
beginning of abstract reasoning, being able to reason about situations they have never experienced
How does an infant learn?
through concert actions
what age does abstract reasoning being
12 or 13
what is abstract reasoning?
can reason about situations not personally experienced
can infants add and subtract
• Show the baby the same array many times
• Show the array with an element missing (shown) or one added
• Surprise indicates that his/her expectations were violated
Do infants look longer or shorter at objects that seem to violate physical laws than those do not?
The response times decreases or increases from 7-12 years of age receiving new information
touching an infant frequently shows?
• Touched newborns grow and develop faster
• Reduced right frontal EEG activity - associated with depression
• Better immune functioning
• Exp: Touched preemies 15 min/ 3 x a day
- Grew 15% faster
- Were more alert
- Discharged faster, able to go home quicker
- *touching is important to us
visual preferences in newborns
• Infants spend more time looking at patterns than solids
• Infants spend the most time looking at a drawing of a human face
• Is this just preference for complexity
• We as a species are drawn to human faces because we are a fundamental social species
Social development: what is attachment?
a deep emotional bond that an infant develps with its primary caretaker
Social development: what is primary drives theory?
Attachment results associating the satisfaction of primary drives with the being who satisfies them
• Tested primary drives theory in Rhesus monkeys
• 2 surrogate mothers:
- a wire surrogate that fed the infant → primary drive
- a cloth surrogate that did not feed the infant
Harlow's study results
Despite the wire surrogate being a source of food, the infant monkeys attached to the cloth surrogate mother
Suggests the this study is not supportive of the primary drives theory
Erikson's Eight Stages-1
1. Trust vs. Mistrust
- Infancy (0-1 year)
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt
- Toddler (1-2 years)
3. Initiative vs. Guilt
- Preschool (3-5 years)
4. Industry vs. inferiority
- Elementary School (6-12 years)
Erikson's Eight Stages: Trust vs. Mistrust
• Baby's first year
Baby depends on others to provide necessities
- If needs are not met, child may never develop essential trust of others
Erikson's Eight Stages: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Young child must learn to be independent without feeling too ashamed or uncertain about his/hers actions
- you see your self as independent
Erikson's Eight Stages: Initiative vs. Guilt
Child acquires new physical and mental skills, but must also learn how to control impulses
- Danger lies in developing too strong a sense of guilt over his or her wishes and fantasies
Eirkson's Eight Stages: Industry vs. inferiority
• School age
Child learns to make things, use tools, accquire the skills for adult life
- Children who fail lessons of mastery and competence may come out this stage feeling inadequate and inferior
what is the strange situation test?
A parent-infant "separation and reunion" procedure that is staged in a laboratory to test the security of a child's attachment
what is secure attachment
baby is secure when the parent is present, distressed by separation, and delighted by reunion
Securely attached kids use caretaker as a secure base, when a caretaker is there they're able to explore their environment without being worried
what is the result of parents having a high responsive rate?
Parental responsiveness highest in securely attached kids, lowest in avoidant kids, and inconsistent in ambivalent kids, parents who pay attention quickly have really attached kids
what are the precentages of children being taken care of?
29% mother or parent at home
what are the positive effects on day care?
children will appear to be more social, low in-come kids will have high quality day care
Day care and aggression
kids in over 30 hours of daycare a week show more aggression in kindergarten
17% of those who are in daycare more than 30 hours versus 6%
Gender segregation at playtime
• Four-year-olds spend three times as much time with same-sex playmates as opposite-sex playmates
• By age six, children spend 11 times as much time with same-sex playmates
What kind of parenting leads to these results in children?
• Low intellectual performance
• Lack social skills
• Particularly harmful for boys
• Kids don't develop their on skills because they cant make they're own decisions
What kind of parenting leads to these results in children?
• Poor academic performance
• Drinking problems
• Promiscuous sex
What kind of parenting leads to these results in children?
• Higher intellectual performance
• Independence- child can make own decisions within being guided
• Internalized moral standards
where both parents and kids are in charge
where the child is in charge over the parent
where the parent is in charge over the child
to grow up
to grow hair
When do girls hit puberty?
when do boys hit puberty?
a girls first menstrual period
a boys first ejaculation
when do adolescent growth spurts occur
age 13 for girls
age 16 for boys
Are girls who mature earlier more happier or less or the same with their bodies
are boys who mature later more happier or less or the same with their bodies
Erikson's Eight Stages- 11
o Identity vs. Role confusion
- Adolescence (13-19 years)
o Identity vs. Role Confusion
- Challenge: Identity crisis
Teenagers must decide who they are, what they are going to do, and what they hope to make of their life's
- Those who resolve the crisis will emerge with a strong identity, ready to plan for the future
- Those who do not sink into confusion, unable to make decisions
Three kinds of problems in Erikson's Eight Stages - 11
• Conflicts with parents
- Frequency: early adolescence
- Intensity: mid-adolescence
- Most often with moms and daughters
• Mood swings
- By mid-teen years 1/3 are depressed
- Often report feeling lonely or nervous
• Risky Behavior (late adolescence)
Do boys or girls feel worse while in a family setting?
Boy feels worse in family setting during what years?
Girls feel worse in family setting during what years?
The strong focus on self leads adolescents to feel that everyone else is focused on them as well
Adolescent assume their thoughts and feelings are unique (no one has ever loved so deeply, etc.)
At what age does neurological change stop?
Cognition in adulthood
• Stable until 50
• At 50 loss connections in brain starts to catch up with people
• By 60 most people slower on cognitive tasks
• Dramatic drop right before death terminal decline
Intelligence and Age
• Measures of fluid intelligence decline steadily through middle and late adulthood→ taking in new information and figuring it out
- Inductive reasoning
- Spatial ability
• Measures of crystallized intelligence remain stable into the 70's
- Verbal ability
- Numeric ability
Perception in Adulthood
• 50% of 65 and older have cataracts - clouding of lens
• by 50 high pitch sounds are hard to hear
• By 50 background sounds are hard to block out
• Taste buds survive, but smell is affected (Which affects taste)
Trust vs. Mistrust 0-1
Autonomy vs. Shame & doubt 1-3
Initiative vs. Guilt 3-6
Industry vs. Inferiority 6- Puberty
Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence
Intimacy vs. Isolation Young Adult
Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle - Age
Integrity vs. Despair Old Age
Intimacy vs. isolation
o Young adulthood
The young adult must share himself with another and learn to make comments
- People are not complete
Until they are capable of intimacy
Generativity vs. stagnation
o Middle years
Will the adult sink into complacency and selfishness, or experience generativity—creativity and renewal?
Ego intergrity vs. Despair
o Late adulthood and old age
- As a person ages, he or she strives to reach the ultimate goals of wisdom, spiritual tranquility, and acceptance of his on her life
o Marital satisfaction declines after the birth of the first child, esp. for women→ because have children is a lot of work
o Role strain, inequitable division of labor are factors
o Only 13% of those over 65 are below the poverty line
o The majority of people view retirement positively
o Losing a spouse increases both mortality and suicide rates
Kubler-Ross stages of dying
1) Denial and isolation
Dealing with the death of others
• Grief: Distress following death of a loved one
• Bereavement: Missing a loved one and longing for his or her company
• Stages of grieving
-Shock (3 weeks)
- Emotional upheaval (1 year) anger, loneliness, guilt
- Lessening of grief (after a year)
Spearman's "G" Factor
• Spearman proposed a general intelligence (g)
- All- purposed ability
- Underlines all mental ability
• Specific abilities (s)
- Abilities particularly relevant to this task or some part of it
• G and one or more s's contribute to performing any particular task
above IQ intelligence 130-135
➢ Mild (IQ between 50-70) 85% of people fall here
Generally can do well in life have a mentality of an average 6th grader
➢ Moderate (IQ between 35-49)- never get above a 2nd of intelligence, need assistance with living
➢ Severe (IQ between 20- 34)- most likely have other physical and disabilities, need constant care
➢ Profound (IQ less than 20)
Daily life becomes more complicated
The more complex your life is
Nutrition is better
Technology such as TV and Video game
all show ways to excretes the brain more
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