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Define biology

scientific study of life

List the 7 properties of life

order, regulation, growth/development, energy utilization, response to environment, reproduction, evolution

What are the two main processes that ecosystems depend on?

cycling of nutrients and flow of energy

Which of the following is not recycled but is lost from ecosystems?


Which structure can perform all the activities required for life?

the cell

Which is larger? Prokaryotic or eukaryotic cell?


Are humans composed of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells?


What name is given to the functional compartment of a cell?


The DNA of a eukaryotic cell is found within what organelle?


What is a gene?

the unit of inheritance that transmits info from parent to offspring

Which has more experimental support, a hypothesis or a theory?


Why does antibiotic resistance evolve in bacteria?

the antibiotic kills most of the bacteria, those that are resistent survive and proliferate

What theory states that all living things are composed of cells?

cell theory

What type of microscope would be best for studying the detailed structure of the surface of a plasma membrane?

scanning electron microscope

What are the two basic cell types?

eukaryotic and prokaryotic

A cell lacking a nucleus is what kind of cell?


A cell with a nucleus and cell wall is what kind of cell?

plant cell

What stores information necessary to produce proteins?


The structural combination of DNA and proteins forms what?


Most human cells contain how many chromosomes?


Where does protein synthesis take place?


Information is transferred from the nucleus to ribosomes via what?


Based on its function in detoxifying drugs, you would expect to find a large amount of smooth ER in what kind of cells?

liver cells

What structures move proteins from the ER to the Golgi apparatus?

transport vesicles

What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?

receives, refines, stores, and distributes chemical products of the cell

Which part of the cell is most like the shipping center of a factory?

golgi apparatus

Lysosomes are responsible for what?

breaking down large molecules

What are vacuoles?

membrane sacs that bud from the ER, golgi and plasma membrane

A protist that contains contractile vacuoles most likely lives in what environment?

fresh water

Plant cells are characterized by the presence of what two structures?

cell wall and central vacuole

Which organelle is responsible for photosynthesis?


What is the function of microtubules?

guiding movement of chromosomes when cells divide, movement of flagella and cilia, and cell shape

DNA and RNA are polymers composed of what?

nucleotide monomers

If adenine makes up 20% of the bases in a DNA double helix, what percent of the bases are guanine?


In a DNA double helix, adenine and guanine pair with what?

thymine and cytosine

If one strand of DNA double helix has the sequence GTCCAT, what is the sequence of the other strand?


Who discovered the structure of DNA?

James Watson and Francis Crick

Evidence for the spiral nature of DNA came from what?

x-ray image

What type of chemical bond joins the bases of complementary DNA strands?

hydrogen bond

After replication, how many old and new strands of DNA exist?

2 old and 2 new

The modern phrasing of Beadle and Tatum's hypothesis about relationships between genes and their product is one gene-one what?


What name is given to the collection of traits exhibited by an organism?


How many nucleotides make up a codon?


The shared genetic code of all life on earth is evidence of what?

common ancestry

What is transcription?

synthesis of RNA on a DNA template

If a strand of DNA has the sequence AAGCTC, transcription will result in a single RNA strand with what sequence?


What protects mRNA from attack by cellular enzymes?

Cap and tail

Translation converts the information stored in RNA to what?


the RNA that is translated into polypeptide is what kind of RNA?


What is the smallest number of nucleotides that must be added or subtracted to change the triplet grouping of the genetic message?


What s the ultimate source of all diversity?


Viruses that infect bacteria are called what?


How can bacteriophage DNA be spread from cell to cell without causing cell death?

lysogenic cycle

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