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Introductory Psychology

William James

medical background; became a professor at Harvard and devoted life to psychology; wrote The Principles of Psychology, 1890;


argued in favor of nativism


argued for philosophical empiricism

Rene Descartes

argued that body and mind are fundamentally different things

Thomas Hobbes

argued that the mind and body aren't different things but rather that the mind is what the brain does

Franz Joseph Gall

observed that mental ability often increases with larger brain size and decreases with damage to the brain; developed phrenology

Paul Broca

had the crucial insight that damage to a specific part of the brain impaired a specific mental function (i.e. Broca's area)

Hermann von Helmholtz

developed a method for measuring the speed of nerve impulses

Wilhelm Wundt

historians generally credit the official emergence of psychology to this man, who was Helmholtz's research assistant; taught the first university-level course in physiological psychology in 1867; opened the first university laboratory exclusively devoted to psychological studies, marking the official birth of psychology as an independent field of study

Edward Titchener

studied with Wundt and then came to the US and set up a psychology laboratory at Cornell University; put forward a list of more than 44,000 elemental qualities of conscious experience, most of them visual or auditory

Max Wertheimer

had an insight into the nature of visual perception; reasoned that in perceived motion the moving flash of light is perceived as a whole rather than as the sum of its two parts; led to the development of Gestalt psychology

Jean-Marie Charcot and Pierre Janet

interviewed patients with hysteria

Sigmund Freud

unconscious, psychoanalytic theory

Carl Gustav Jung and Alfred Adler

prominent in the psychoanalytic movement, but free thinkers who Freud had little tolerance for

Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

pioneered humanistic psychology

John Watson

believed that private experience was too idiosyncratic and vague to be an object of scientific inquiry; proposed that scientists focus entirely on the study of behavior

Ivan Pavlov

carried out pioneering research on the physiology of digestion; noticed that the dogs he was studying salivated not only at the sight of food but also at the sight of the person who fed them

B.F. Skinner

skinner box/conditioning chamber, reinforcement, behaviorism

Sir Frederic Bartlett

British psychologist interested in memory; believed it was more important to examine memory for the kinds of information people actually encounter in everyday life; discovered that research participants often remembered what should have happened or what they expected to happen rather than what actually did happen

Jean Piaget

studied the perceptual and cognitive errors of children in order to gain insight into the nature and development of the human mind

Kurt Lewin

argued that one could best predict a person's behavior in the world by understanding the person's subjective experience of the world; realized that a person's construal of a stimulus determined the person's subsequent behavior

Noam Chomsky

provided a clever, detailed, and thoroughly cognitive account of language that could explain many of the phenomena that the behaviorist account could not

Karl Lashley

a psychologist who studied with Watson; conducted a famous series of studies in which he trained rats to run mazes, surgically removed parts of their brains, and then measured how well they could run the maze again; hoped to find the precise spot in the brain where the rat's memories for how to run the maze were stored; no one spot seemed uniquely and reliably to eliminate memory

Gordon Allport

studied stereotyping, prejudice, and racism

Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson

anthropologists who attempted to understand the workings of culture by traveling to far-flung regions of the world and carefully observing social patterns

Mary Calkins

studied with William James at Harvard; later became a professor of psychology at Wellesley College; one of the pioneering women psychologists

Kenneth Clark

first member of a minority group to become president of the APA in 1970; worked extensively on self-image of African American children and argued that segregation of the races creates great psychological harm

Francis Cecil Sumner

first African American to receive a PhD in psychology; focused on the education of African American youth

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