Principles of Psychology - People

Introductory Psychology
William James
medical background; became a professor at Harvard and devoted life to psychology; wrote The Principles of Psychology, 1890;
argued in favor of nativism
argued for philosophical empiricism
Rene Descartes
argued that body and mind are fundamentally different things
Thomas Hobbes
argued that the mind and body aren't different things but rather that the mind is what the brain does
Franz Joseph Gall
observed that mental ability often increases with larger brain size and decreases with damage to the brain; developed phrenology
Paul Broca
had the crucial insight that damage to a specific part of the brain impaired a specific mental function (i.e. Broca's area)
Hermann von Helmholtz
developed a method for measuring the speed of nerve impulses
Wilhelm Wundt
historians generally credit the official emergence of psychology to this man, who was Helmholtz's research assistant; taught the first university-level course in physiological psychology in 1867; opened the first university laboratory exclusively devoted to psychological studies, marking the official birth of psychology as an independent field of study
Edward Titchener
studied with Wundt and then came to the US and set up a psychology laboratory at Cornell University; put forward a list of more than 44,000 elemental qualities of conscious experience, most of them visual or auditory
Max Wertheimer
had an insight into the nature of visual perception; reasoned that in perceived motion the moving flash of light is perceived as a whole rather than as the sum of its two parts; led to the development of Gestalt psychology
Jean-Marie Charcot and Pierre Janet
interviewed patients with hysteria
Sigmund Freud
unconscious, psychoanalytic theory
Carl Gustav Jung and Alfred Adler
prominent in the psychoanalytic movement, but free thinkers who Freud had little tolerance for
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers
pioneered humanistic psychology
John Watson
believed that private experience was too idiosyncratic and vague to be an object of scientific inquiry; proposed that scientists focus entirely on the study of behavior
Ivan Pavlov
carried out pioneering research on the physiology of digestion; noticed that the dogs he was studying salivated not only at the sight of food but also at the sight of the person who fed them
B.F. Skinner
skinner box/conditioning chamber, reinforcement, behaviorism
Sir Frederic Bartlett
British psychologist interested in memory; believed it was more important to examine memory for the kinds of information people actually encounter in everyday life; discovered that research participants often remembered what should have happened or what they expected to happen rather than what actually did happen
Jean Piaget
studied the perceptual and cognitive errors of children in order to gain insight into the nature and development of the human mind
Kurt Lewin
argued that one could best predict a person's behavior in the world by understanding the person's subjective experience of the world; realized that a person's construal of a stimulus determined the person's subsequent behavior
Noam Chomsky
provided a clever, detailed, and thoroughly cognitive account of language that could explain many of the phenomena that the behaviorist account could not
Karl Lashley
a psychologist who studied with Watson; conducted a famous series of studies in which he trained rats to run mazes, surgically removed parts of their brains, and then measured how well they could run the maze again; hoped to find the precise spot in the brain where the rat's memories for how to run the maze were stored; no one spot seemed uniquely and reliably to eliminate memory
Gordon Allport
studied stereotyping, prejudice, and racism
Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson
anthropologists who attempted to understand the workings of culture by traveling to far-flung regions of the world and carefully observing social patterns
Mary Calkins
studied with William James at Harvard; later became a professor of psychology at Wellesley College; one of the pioneering women psychologists
Kenneth Clark
first member of a minority group to become president of the APA in 1970; worked extensively on self-image of African American children and argued that segregation of the races creates great psychological harm
Francis Cecil Sumner
first African American to receive a PhD in psychology; focused on the education of African American youth