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AP Psychology Chapter 7 Vocab
Terms in this set (50)
Our awareness of ourselves and our environment.
Periodic psychological Fluctuations
The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle.
The SCN regulates neurotransmitters, hormones, etc as well as recieves feedback for SCN functioning. One of the hormones that the SCN regulates is melatonin whcih is secreted by the pineal gland for the regulation of cricadian rhythems.
Located in the center of the brain, functioning to secrete melatonin and serotonin.
A hormone manufactured by the pineal gland that produces sleepiness
REM Sleep/ Paradoxical Sleep
Rapid eye movement sleep, a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. Also known as paradoxical sleep, because the muscles are relaxed. (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active
The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
Short bursts of brain activity that characterize stage 2 NREM sleep.
Eletroencephalogram; an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
Periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness—as distinct from unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation.
False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus.
Involuntary jerk of the muscles during stage 1 sleep, muscles are relaxing
The large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep.
A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
A sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings.
The condition of walking or performing some other activity without awakening; also known as sleepwalking.
A sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.
A sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it.
According to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).
According to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content). Freud believed that a dream's latent content functions as a safety valve.
The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation (created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep).
A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
A suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.
A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.
Researched hypnosis and its effectiveness as an analgesic (reduction of pain) effect; studies showing that a hypnotic trance includes a "hidden observer," suggesting that there is some subconscious control during hypnosis.
A chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood.
The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect.
The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.
A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.
A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions.
Compulsive drug craving and use.
Drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.
Opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety.
Drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
Drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes.
A powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels.
A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.
Psychedelic drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.
A powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid.
The major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations.
An altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations.
The presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact.
The presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.
Not typically available to consciousness or memory.
In Freud's theory, the level of consciousness in which thoughts and feelings are not conscious but are readily retrieveable to consciousness.
Psychic activity just below the level of awareness.
That part of the mind wherein psychic activity takes place of which the person is unaware.
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