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27 terms

AP 19 Blood Part 6 - Blood Groups

chapter 19 cardiovascular system: blood; part 6 - blood groupings - ABO
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Transfusion
transfer of blood or blood components from one individual to another
Infusion
introduction of fluid other than blood
Blood groupings
determined by antigens (agglutinogens) on surface of RBCs; Antibodies (agglutinins) can bind to RBC antigens, resulting in agglutination (clumping) or hemolysis (rupture) of RBCs
Blood Groups
ABO and Rh
ABO Blood Group
Agglutination Reaction
Transfustion of ABO blood types
Type A blood has anti-B antibodies; Type B blood has anti-A antibodies; Suggested that these antibodies are present because of exposure to A/B antegens on bacteria and food
Donor
gives blood
Recipient
Receives blood
Universal Donor
type O; can atually cause transfusion reactions because of antibodies in O blood plasma
Rh Blood Group
1st studied in rhesus monkeys; Types Rh Positive, Rh Negative
Rh Positive
have these antigens present on surface of RBCs
Rh Negative
do not have these antigens present on surface of RBCs
Hemolytic Disease of Newborn (HDN)
Rh positive fetus, Rh negative mother; Late in pregnancy, Rh ntigens of fetus cross placenta (through a tear in placenta or during delivery) mother creates antiRh antibiodies (primary response); Second Rh positive pregnancy might initiate secondary response and HDN (potentially fatal to fetus since antibodies to its RBCs would cross placenta from mother to fetus, destroying fetal RBCs); Injection of RhoGAM, contains antibodies against Rh antigens, antibodies attach to any fetal RBCs ad they are destroyed
Erytrhoblastosis Fetalis
Diagnostic Blood Tests
Type/Crossmatch and Complete blood count
Type and Crossmatch
determination of ABO and Rh bood types; Red cells tested agains antibodies
Complete Blood Count
RBC count, hemoglobin measurements, hematocrit measurements, WBC count, differential WB count, Clotting (platelet count, prothrombin time measurement), blood chemistry
RBC Count
number of RBCs/microliter of blood
Hemoglobin Measurement
grams of hemoglobin/100 mL of blood; For a male, 14-18, female 12-16 g/100 mL
Hematocrit Measurement
percent of blood that is RBCs (centrifuge and measure)
WBC Count
5,000-10,000/ microliter of blood
Hematocrit Picture
Differential WBC Count
determines percentage of each of 5 types of WBC; Neutrophils: 60-70%, Lymphocytes: 20-30%, Monocytes: 2-8%, Eosinophils: 1-4%, Basophils: 0.5-1%
Platelet Count (Clotting)
250,000-400,000/microliter
Prothrombin Time Measurements (Clotting)
measures how long it takes for blood to start clotting; 9-12 seconds; To test, thromboplastin is added to whole plasma
Blood Chemistry
composition of materials dissolved or suspended in plasma; Used to assess functioning of many body systems