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determined by antigens (agglutinogens) on surface of RBCs; Antibodies (agglutinins) can bind to RBC antigens, resulting in agglutination (clumping) or hemolysis (rupture) of RBCs
Transfustion of ABO blood types
Type A blood has anti-B antibodies; Type B blood has anti-A antibodies; Suggested that these antibodies are present because of exposure to A/B antegens on bacteria and food
type O; can atually cause transfusion reactions because of antibodies in O blood plasma
Hemolytic Disease of Newborn (HDN)
Rh positive fetus, Rh negative mother; Late in pregnancy, Rh ntigens of fetus cross placenta (through a tear in placenta or during delivery) mother creates antiRh antibiodies (primary response); Second Rh positive pregnancy might initiate secondary response and HDN (potentially fatal to fetus since antibodies to its RBCs would cross placenta from mother to fetus, destroying fetal RBCs); Injection of RhoGAM, contains antibodies against Rh antigens, antibodies attach to any fetal RBCs ad they are destroyed
Complete Blood Count
RBC count, hemoglobin measurements, hematocrit measurements, WBC count, differential WB count, Clotting (platelet count, prothrombin time measurement), blood chemistry
grams of hemoglobin/100 mL of blood; For a male, 14-18, female 12-16 g/100 mL
Differential WBC Count
determines percentage of each of 5 types of WBC; Neutrophils: 60-70%, Lymphocytes: 20-30%, Monocytes: 2-8%, Eosinophils: 1-4%, Basophils: 0.5-1%
Prothrombin Time Measurements (Clotting)
measures how long it takes for blood to start clotting; 9-12 seconds; To test, thromboplastin is added to whole plasma
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