Nutrition and Global Health
Terms in this set (40)
The Importance of Nutrition
-Nutritional status is intimately linked with health status
-Nutrition is the leading risk factor for loss of health in low-and-middle-income countries
-Low-cost, highly effective interventions are available to improve nutrition status
refers to those who do not get proper nutrition, whether too little, too much, or the wrong kind
refers to those who lack sufficient energy or nutrients
refers to those who have low weight for their height or age
Overweight or Obese
refers to those who are nourished to the point of being too heavy for their height or weight
low level of hemoglobin in the blood, as evidenced by a reduced quality or quantity of red blood cells
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Body weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared
Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs)
the spectrum of IDDs includes goiter, hypothyroidism, impaired mental functions, stillbirths, abortions, congenital abnormalities, and neurological cretinism
birth-weights less than 2500 grams
excessive body fat content; commonly measured by BMI. The international reference for classifying an individual as obese is a BMI greater than 30
The 4 Key Micro-nutrients
1. Vitamin A
The Nutritional Status Indicators
4. vitamin A deficiency
failure to reach linear growth potential because of inadequate nutrition or poor health. It is measured as height for age two z-scores below the international reference. (comparing height with age)
poor nutrition. the three most commonly used indexes for child under-nutrition are height for age, weight for age, and weight for height. For adults, under-nutrition is measured by a BMI less than 18.5
low weight for age that is 2 z-scores below the international references for weight for age. It implies stunting or wasting and is an indicator of under-nutrition.
Vitamin A deficiency
tissue concentrations of vitamin A low enough to have adverse health consequences such as increased morbidity and mortality, poor reproductive health, and slowed growth and development, even if there is no clinical deficiency.
weight, measured in kilograms, divided by height in meters squared that is two z-scores below the international reference. (weight compared to height)
A statistical term meaning the deviation of an individuals value from the median value of a reference population, divided by the standard deviation of the reference population.
The 2 Determinants of Nutritional Status:
Immediate causes of malnutrition
1. Inadequate dietary intake- weakens the body and opens it up to infection
2. Illness- makes it harder for people to eat, absorb the nutrients they take in, and raises the need for some nutrients.
Relationship creates a cycle of illness and infection
Gauging Nutritional Status
-Nutritional status of infants and children is gauged by measuring and weighing them, then plotting weight and height on a growth chart
-Child's position on growth curve indicates if they are developing normally.
-Large share of nutritional deficits are mild, but still have negative consequences on development.
Key Nutritional Needs: Under-nutrition
-outcome of insufficient food intake and repeated infectious disease
-includes underweight, stunted, wasted, and micro-nutrient malnutrition.
Key Nutritional Needs: Vitamin A
-deficiency associated with night blindness and eventually, permanent blindness
-important to growth and the proper functioning of the immune system
-impact on severity of illness and chance of survival from several causes, including diarrhea, malaria, and pneumonia.
Key Nutritional Needs: Iodine
-Deficiency associated with a growth on the thyroid called a goiter and the failure to develop full intellectual potential
-deficiency can also cause fetal loss, stillbirth, congenital anomalies, and hearing impairment.
-Occurs in people who live in mountainous regions where less seafood is consumed and the soil is deficient in iodine
Key Nutritional Needs: Iron
-Deficiency causes iron deficiency anemia which is associated with fatigue and weakness
-Iron-deficient pregnant women have an increased risk of giving birth to a premature or low birth weight baby or hemorrhaging and dying in child birth
Key Nutritional Needs: Zinc
-deficiency is associated with growth retardation, impaired immune function, skin disorders, hypogonadism, and cognitive dysfunction.
-Deficiency is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality from diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria
Nutritional Needs Throughout the Life Cycle: Pregnancy and Birthweight
-Pregnant women need a sufficient amount of protein and energy as well as iron, iodine, folate, zinc and calcium.
-Fetuses that do not get sufficient nutrition from the mother may suffer from stillbirth, mental impairment or birth defects
-Intrauterine growth retardation can also occur
-Low birth weight babies are at much greater risk for pneumonia and diarrhea
2 Main Causes of Death in low and middle income countries
Nutritional Needs Throughout the Life Cycle: Infancy and Young Childhood
-Children need sufficient protein and energy as well as iodine, iron, vitamin A, and zinc
-Nutritional gaps during this time can cause problems with stature and mental development, and frequent infection
-grow best and stay healthiest if exclusively breastfed from first 6 months
-"Window of opportunity" is in utero to two years of age
Nutritional Needs Throughout the Life Cycle
-adolescents need protein and energy to grow as well as iron, iodine, folic acid, and calcium
-Adolescent girls who are poorly nourished are much more likely to give birth to an underweight child and experience complications during pregnancy than well-nourished girls
Nutritional Needs Throughout the Life Cycle: Adulthood to Old Age
-Adults need a well-balanced diet with protein, energy, and iron
-Foods that contain too much fat, cholesterol, sugar, or salt can be harmful
-Older adults need calcium to reduce risk of osteoporosis
Nutritional State of the World: Undernutrition
-26% of under-5 children are underweight according to most recent estimates
-Rates of underweight vary considerably by region
-Only about 0.5% of total deaths in low-and middle- income countries are directly due to under-nutrition
-Deaths are usually "Nutrition related"
Nutritional State of the World: Low Birthweight
-11% of babies in low- and middle-income countries are born low birth-weight according to recent estimates
-About 3% of DALYs lost in low-and middle-income countries are attributable to low birth-weight
Nutritional State of the World: Vitamin A
-About 250 million children suffer from Vitamin A deficiency worldwide
-6.5% of all deaths of children under-5 in low- and middle- income countries are due to vitamin A deficiency
Nutritional State of the World: Iodine
-About 70 million people worldwide are affected by iodine deficiency
-associated with substantial DALYs lost in low-and middle-income countries
Nutritional State of the World: Iron
-About 1.6 billion people were affected by anemia between 1993 and 2005
-Substantial public health problems for children under 5 and pregnant women, especially in low-and middle-income countries
-0.7% of DALYs lost in low-and middle-income countries is related to iron deficiency anemia
Nutritional State of the World: Zinc
-Second most important micro-nutrient responsible for death and DALYs in children under 5
-About 4% of DALYs lost in children under 5 years of age are due to zinc deficiency
Nutrition, Health and Economic Development
-Nutritional impacts health and human development
-Link to what people learn and their productivity
-impacts maternal health, which affects household income and health of children
-affects children's ability to learn in school, which impacts their future prospects
-Leads to lower productivity in adults workers
What are some of the cost effective interventions that can help to reverse malnutrition?
1. Fortification of food
2. Breast feeding
3. Health education: Campaigns, Hand-washing
Videos: Power of Nutriton
From poverty and disease malnutrition to prosperous nation. good nourishment from mothers and during development increase IQs, wages, less illnesses, and most cost effective. For ever $1 invested you see a $30 return.
Step 1 Breastfeeding for the first 6 months
Step 2 Adding complementary foods once the child reaches 6 months.
-All of this helps to reduce disease, create an educated workforce and helps to increase a countries GDP.
Videos: Plumpy nut
-this is food fortification
-Most moms watch at least one of their children die from malnutrition
-The mother does not produce milk, which makes the child lack minerals, nutrients, this is a peanut butter, powdered milk, and sugar paste that equals one glass of milk and one serving of a multi vitamin to a child.
-helps within days to reverse the lack of nutrition the child may have had before.
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