Endocrine System

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Hormones & Glands

Endocrine System

slower to respond, long-lasting effects, hormones & target tissues, hypothalamus

Nervous System

fast acting, nerve impulses, hypothalamus

Pituitary gland

master gland


secretes thyroxin, controls metabolic rate




for glands embedded in the thyroid; secretes parathormone; controls announces level of calcium and phosphate (which influence levels of excitability)


gland which increases heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate


located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon


located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone


the primary gland of the lymphatic system, located within the mediastinum; helps maintain the body's immune response by producing T lymphocytes


estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone, cortisol, cholesterol

Amino acid-based

Amines, thyroxine, peptide, and protein hormones

Target cells

cells that have receptors for a particular hormone


chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues

Negative feedback mechanisms

The most common homeostatic control mechanism. The net effect is that the output of the system shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity.

Pineal body

a structure found between the cerebral hemispheres of vertebrates; secretes melatonin


stimulates contraction of uterus and the milk "letdown" reflex; pituitary


hormone that increases the reabsorption of water; pituitary

Growth hormone

a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland, Stimulates growth and metabolism


Stimulates milk production; anterior pituitary


hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate metabolism


reduces blood calcium level; thyroid


increases blood calcium level; parathyroid


Pancreas; protein hormone that helps to decrease blood sugar


a hormone secreted by the pancreas, Raises blood glucose


affects masculinization and reproduction; testies


Support sperm formation; development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics; testies


stimulate uterine lining growth; development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics


promotes growth of uterine lining; Ovaries

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