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History test 2
Terms in this set (92)
What period in European history did the Renaissance cover?
What did the intellectual and cultural movement known as humanism arise from?
What was the Renaissance a rebirth of?
Art and learning
How did Italy's location help it become the birthplace of the Renaissance?
Had thriving cities, wealthy merchant class, and the heritage of Greek and roman
What kind of person represented the ideal of the Renaissance man?
Man who excelled in many fields
What is the technique perspective most useful in the creation of?
3 dimensional works and paintings
To become known as an important patron, what does a person most need to be?
Wealthy, church leaders, merchants, and rich
What is a synonym for secular?
The study of classical texts caused humanists to focus on what subject?
Human potential and achievement
For what is the Medici family famous?
Banking; supporting the arts
Which Medici was made a cardinal at 13 and later became Pope Leo X?
Giovanni de Medici
Which artist's statue became a symbol for defiance of the Medici?
Who invented perspective?
Who created the statues of David? (Who created which one?) (which one was created first?)
Michelangelo and Donatello; Michelangelo's was the rebellion symbol David that was made out of marble; Donatello's Davids: one was clothed marble and the other was bronze nude; Donatello's was created first
Who created the following works? La Primavera, The School of Athens, Birth of Venus, The Mona Lisa, ll Duomo, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, The Last Supper, The Dome of St. Peter's Basillica
Bottechelli, Raphael, Bottechelli, Da Vinci, Bruneschelli, Michelangelo, Da Vinci, Michelangelo
What were the Medici family known as?
Which monk led a rebellion against the Medici family in Florence?
Who led the resistance against the Medici brothers when they led a papal army to attack Florence?
What was an important effect of the invention of the printing press?
Books printed cheaply, more were able to read, gave information that resulted in the Reformation
Why was block printing more useful in Europe than in China?
Chinese had more letters and symbols than the Europeans
Who were some notable Christian Humanists?
Erasmus, Thomas More
What was Christian Humanism?
Belief that human freedom
What was the first country to use moveable type?
Who wrote each of the following books? Utopia, in praise of folly, the book of the city of the ladies, the book of the courtier, the Decameron, the prince
Thomas More, Erasmus, De Pizano, castigilone, Boccaccio, Machiavelli
What kind of work did Renaissance painters in Flanders, as in Italy, tend to ptoduce?
What does vernacular mean? What does humanism mean?
Vernacular- writing in your native language
Humanism- Renaissance movement when thinkers studied classical texts focused of human potential and achievement
Which artist was invited into the Medici household at a young age and raised by Lornzo de Medici along with his sons?
He was a scientist, painter, sculptor, inventor, and engineer. He could be considered the ideal "Renaissance" man.
Leonardo da Vinci
He became known as the Pater Patriae, Father of the Fatherland in Florence.
Cosmo de Medici
What does Pater Patriae mean?
Father of the Fatherland
She tended to paint pictures of strong, heroic women, and was trained to paint by her father.
He has been called the father of the Renaissance humanism, and was one of the earliest and most influential humanists.
He led the city of Florence in the years that the Medici were exiled and led the defense of the city against their invasion.
He damned Lorenzo de Medici to hell when Lornzo asked for forgiveness.
He held the Bonfire of the Vanities, a mass burning of jewelry, clothing, writings, artwork, and other signs of humanistic culture.
The cardinals attempted his assassination when he was pope.
Giovanni de medici
He survived an assassination attempt inside the Florence Cathedral on Easter.
Lornzo de Medici
What event marked the end of the Italian Renaissance?
The sack of Rome
Who were some of the key Northern Renaissance artists? What were some of their works?
Bosch, Dürer, Eyck
How did the Italian Renaissance travel north?
Trade, printing press, art
How did Francis 1 of France impact the Italian and Northern Renaissances?
How was the Northern Renaissance different from the Italian Renaissance?
It was more Christian in nature and not as secular
What thing traveled from the Northern to the Italian Renaissance? What is a good example of an Italian Renaissance artist using something from the North?
What things inspired the Northern Renaissance artists?
Religious reform, human bodies, natural world
What were some of the central areas of the Northern Renaissance?
Flanders, Germany, England, France
What European nation profited most from the trade with the East in the years directly following the Crusades? How might this have impacted the Renaissannce?
Italy; it made them richer and brought new ideas
Which nation did Prince Henry help to take the lead in overseas exploration?
In the 1400s, what was the most important trade good from the East?
Bartolomeu Dias captained the first European ship to sail what route?
Around the southern tip of Africa
What did Vasco de Gama succeed in gaining for Portugl?
A direct route to Asia
The Line of Demarcation, established by the Treaty of Tordesillas, set a boundary between which two regions?
The line was through the Atlantic Ocean. West of the line was Spain and East was Portugal
By the 1700s, which nation's East India Company dominated the Indian Ocean trade?
Which European country was the leader in developing and applying 15th century sailing innovations?
Why was the caravel an important development in navigation?
It allowed people to sail into the wind
Who captained the first European ship to sail around the tip of Africa, now known as the Cape of Good Hope?
How did Prince Henry of Portugal influence exploration?
He helped fund many voyages and started a sailing school.
What was the purpose of the Treaty of Tordesillas?
It separated the Americas. Land east of the line belonged to Portugal. The west to Spain
Why did Europeans see Africans as a better source of labor than Native Americans?
Africans had built up immunity to European diseases, they already knew how to farm, they were less likely to escape because they didn't know the land, and their skin color made them stick out and easier to catch.
What was the purpose of the joint-stock companies in the 1500s and 1600s?
All of the colonists would pay a small share of the colonization, so if the colony failed, they wouldn't lose a lot of money. If it prospered, they shared the wealth together.
Where in the Americas did Christopher Columbus land first?
An island in the Bahamaes; called San Salvador (Holy Savior)
What did the encomienda system provide for New Spain?
It Llowed Spain to have free labor and exploit the land for valuable reasons
What prompted a wave of new businesses and trade practices in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries?
Wealth from the Americas
Which European country was the first to import enslaved Africans to the Americas?
Portugal/ Prince Henry the Navigator
As part of the Colombian Exchange, which of the following was carried west across the Atlantic?
Onion, olive, turnip, coffee beans, peach, pear, citrus fruit, grape, banana, sugar cane, honeybee, grains, livestock, and diseases
Which area of North America was originally founded as a settlement for the Dutch?
What helped to increase the slave trade in Africa during the seventh century?
Muslims believed that non-Muslim prisoners of war could be bought and sold as slaves
Which of the following did NOT aid the Spanish in conquering the Aztecs?
Cortes didn't have actual authority over the area.
On what assumption was the encomienda system based?
They would be nice to the native Americans and treat them kindly
What was one result of the loss of native lives to disease?
Small pox destroyed tribes severely, shortage of labor in the colonies, and European colonies enslaved the Africans.
How did slavery in African and Muslim societies differ from slavery in the Americas?
African and Muslim slaves had some legal rights and opportunities for social mobility and Muslim slaves can have high position and power and they didn't base in skin color
How did Bartoleme de Las Casas affect race relations in the Americas?
He suggested Africans take the place of native Americans as slaves
According to the policy of mercantilism, how could a nation increase its wealth?
Sell more than it buys
How was Africa affected by the Atlantic Slave Trade?
Many were taken captive and sold as slaves; the country received goods in return for the slaves
Why did the Northern Renaissance lag behind that of Italy?
Black Death and Hundred Years' War
How did Gutenberg's invention of the printing press help ideas to spread quickly?
Because they were made cheaper and quicker; more people bought them and read them
What was the purpose of Columbus' initial voyage?
To find a route to India west across the Atlantic
System the Spanish used to force native Americans to work for them
Someone who is a mix of Spanish and Native American
What was the first permanent English settlement in North America?
What area did New Netherlands cover? New France? New England?
NN- Hudson Bay, river, and strait NF- Quebec NE- Massachusetts bay and Plymouth
Why did the pilgrims leave Britian and head to North America?
Who founded the colony known as Massachusetts Bay?
What was a joint stock company? How is it similar to today's economy?
A business entity where different stocks can be bought and owned by shareholders; we use the stock market
What is capitalism?
An economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state
What was the main purpose of the Joint stock company? What were they mainly created to achieve?
Make a profit; afford the building of colonies in America
What helped bring about the new business practices in Europe and North America?
New wealth from the americas
What is a favorable balance of trade? How is it achieved?
Making more than u spend; nations sell more than they buy
What was King Philip's War? What was the French and Indian War? What were the results of each war?
Kp- armed conflict between Native Americans and English colonists; colonists won. FI- colonists of New England v.s. New France; English won.
What was the Colombian Exchange?
When new foods and other items were exchanged across the Atlantic Ocean between Europe and Africa and the Americas
Who conquered the Aztecs and Incas?
Spain; Aztecs- Cortes Incas- pizzaro
What was the first permanent British settlement in North America?
What was the middle passage?
The middle leg of a three part journey; the part where th slaved were traded
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