27 terms

Chapter 36 Digestion & Excretory Systems

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digestion
the breaking down of food into chemical substance that can be used for energy
mouth
place where digestion begins
bolus
a chewed clump of food
mechanical digestion
breaking food into smaller parts by ripping, churning
chemical digestion
chemical change of food, enzymes break bonds of food molecules
amylase
enzyme in saliva that breakdown starches
esophagus
a long, straight tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach
peristalsis
the series of rythmic muscular contractions that move food through the digestive tract
sphincters
tight rings of muscles that close the esophagus after food has passed into stomach, functions to prevent backflow
stomach
a muscular, saclike organ located at the bottom of the esophagus
pepsin
enzyme that is found in gastric juices that helps break down proteins
chyme
liquefied food
pancreas
accessory structure of digestion that secretes several digestive enzymes into the small intestine
liver
accessory structure of digestion that produces bile, secretes bile, a greenish fluid that breaks fat globules into tiny fat droplets
villus
one of the many tiny projections from the cells in the lining of the small intestine
excretion
the process of eliminating metabolic wastes
urea
the principal nitrogenous product of the metabolism of proteins that forms in the liver, found in sweat and urine
nephron
the functional unit of the kidney
renal medulla
inner part of kidney
renal cortex
the outer part of the kidney
glomerulus
a mesh-like ball of blood vessels found in the nephron
Bowman's capsule
collects all of the materials that came out of the glomerulus, like a cup connected to a tube
reabsorption
The process in which liquid is taken back into a vessel
loop of henle
part of the nephron where the wastes are concentrated (urine) by the continued removal of water
ureter
one of the two narrow tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
urinary bladder
a hollow, muscular organ that stores urine
urethra
the tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body