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47 terms

Chapter 2

corsha harris
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Constitution
Written plan for government.
Bicameral
were divided into two parts,or houses.
Confederation
is a group of individual state governments that band together for common purpose.
Articles of Confederation
The first constitution of the United States, adopted by Congress in 1777 and enacted in 1781. The Articles established a national legislature, the Continental Congress, but most authority rested with the state legislatures.
Ratify
approved the Articles of Confederation
Shay's Rebellion
was led by Daniel Shays it was a protest against the land being taken away and the taxes that they had just worked so hard to get rid of
Constitutional Convention
a meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that produced a new constitution
Virginia Plan
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
New Jersey Plan
New Jersey delegate William Peterson's plan of government, in which states got an equal number of representatives in Congress
Great Compromise
a compromise is a way of resolving disagreements in which each side gives up something but gains something else.
3/5 Compromise
delegates agreed that every five enslaved person would count as three free persons.
Electoral College
a group of people who would be named by each state legislature.
Federalists
Supporters of the document.
Federalism
a form of government in which power is divided between the federal, or national,government and the states.
Anti-Federalists
those who opposed the constitution.
Preamble
an introduction that states and goals and purposes of the government.
legislative branch
the branch of government that makes the laws.
executive branch
law enforce branch of government
judicial branch
part of government that interprets the laws and sees that they are fairly applied.
amendment
Any change in the Constitution.
implied powers
powers that congress has that are not stated explicitly in the constitution
popular sovereignty
the idea that the power of government lies with the people.
rule of law
the law applies to everyone.
separation of law
division of authority.
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power.
expressed powers
the powers specifically granted to the national government into three types.
reserved powers
Powers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied to the states belong to the states and the people
concurrent powers
powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments
Supremacy Clause
The constitutional provision that makes the Constitution and federal laws superior to all conflicting state and local laws.
Civil Liberties
freedom to think and act without government interference
Censorship
banning offensive or alarming information
Petition
harming someone's reputation by speaking lies
Slander
harming someone's reputation by printing lies
Libel
formal request, often in the form of a brief or letter
Search Warrant
court order allowing police to search private property and gather
indictment
a formal document written for a prosecuting attorney charging a person with some offense
grand jury
a group of citizens that decides whether there is sufficient evidence to accuse someone of a crime
double jeopardy
being tried twice for the same crime
Due process
following established legal procedures
Eminent domain
right of government to take private property for public use
Bail
the legal system that allows an accused person to be temporarily released from custody (usually on condition that a sum of money guarantees their appearance at trial)
Suffrage
right to vote
Poll taxes
sum of money paid before casting a ballot
Discrimination
unfair treatment of certain groups because of prejudice
Segregation
social separation of the races
Civil Rights
freedom of full citizenship and equality under the law
Affirmative action
programs that try to make up for past discrimination