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galea aponeurotica

connective tissue sheet cobering the superior aspect of the cranium


vaultlike portion of the skull encasing the brain


pseudojoints that join the various bones of the skull to form the cranium.

intracranial pressure (ICP)

pressure exerted on the brain by the blood and cerebrospinal fluid.


3 membranes that surround and protect the brain and spinal cord.

dura mater

tough layer of the meninges firmly attached to the interior of the skull and interior of the spinal column.

pia mater

inner and most delicate layer of the meninges. it covers the convolutions of teh brain and spinal cord.

arachnoid membrane

middle layer of the meninges

cerebrospinal fluid

fluid surrounding and bathing the brain and spinal cord.


largest bart of the brain. it consists of two hemispheres separated by a deep longitudinal fissure. it is the seat of consciousness and the center of the higher mental functions such as memory, learning, reasoning, judgement, intelligence, and emotions.


portion of the brain located dorsally to the pons and medulla oblongata. it plays an important role in the fine control of voluntary muscular movements.


the part of the brain connecting the cerebral hemisphere with the spinal cord. it is comprised of the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain.


portion of the brain connecting the pons and the cerebellum with the cerebral hemisphere.


portion of the brain important for controlling certain metabolic activities, including the regulation of body temperature


switching station between the pons and the cerebrum in the brain.

reticular activating system (RAS)

a series of nervous tissues keeping the human system in a state of consciousness.


process of tissue responsible for the communication interchange between the cerebellum, the cerebrum, midbrain, and the spinal cord.

medulla oblongata

lower portion of the brainstem containing the respiratory, cardiac, and vasomotor centers.

cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)

the pressure moving blood through the brain


process that controls blood flow to the brain tissue by causing alterations in the blood pressure.


the cheekbone


bone of the upper jaw


the jawbone


the openings of the nostrils


outer, visible portion of the ears

semicircular canals

the 3 rings of the inner ear. they sense the motion of the head and brovide positional sense for the body.


the eye socket.

vitreous humor

clear watery fluid filling the posterior chamber of the eye. it is responsible for giving the eye its spherical shape.


light- and color- sensing tissue lining the posterior chamber of the eye.

aqueous humor

clear fluid filling the anterior chamber of the eye.


pigmented portion of the eye. it is the muscular area that constricts or dilates to change the size of the pupil.


dark opening in the center of the iris through which light enters the eye.


the "white" of the eye.


thin, delicate layer covering the pupil and the iris.


mucous membrane that lines the eyelids.

lacrimal fluid

liquid that lubercates the eye.

lymphatic system

a network of vessels that drains fluid, called lymph, from the body tissue. Lymph nodes help filter impurities en route to the subclavian vein and then to the heart.


the 33 bones making up the vertebral column.

vertebral body

short column of bone that forms the weight-bearing portion of a vertebra

spinal column

opening in the vertebrae that accommodates the spinal cord


thick, boney struts that connect the vertebral bodies with the spinous and transverse process and help make up the opening for the spinal canal


posterior bones of the verteba that help make up the foramen, or opening, of the canal

transverse process

bony outgrowth of the vertebral pedicle that serves as a site for muscle attachment and articulation with the ribs.

spinous process

prominence at the posterior part of a vertebra

intervertabral disk

carilaginous pad between vertebrae that serves as a shock absorber.

what are the 5 sections of the spine?

cervical spine C1-7; thoracic spine T1-12; Lumbar L1-5; sacral S1-5; coccygeal spine about 4 fused vertebrae

xiphisternal joint

union between xiphiod process and body of the sternum.

pulmonary hilum

central medial region of the lung where the bronchi and pulmonary vasculature enter the lung.

great vessels

the large arteries and veins located in the mediastinum that enter and exit the heart; the aorta, superior/inferior vena cava, pulmonary arteries, and pulmonary veins.

ligamentum arteriosum

cordlike remnant of a fetal vessel connectiong the pulmonary artery to the aorta at the aortic isthmus.

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