119 terms

Bones and Surface Markings of the Appendicular Skeleton

by Rob Swatski, Associate Professor of Biology at HACC-York Campus (HACC, Central Pennsylvania's Community College) http://robswatski.virb.com/
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Pectoral girdles
Attach the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton; consist of a clavicle and a scapula
Shoulder girdles
Another name for the pectoral girdles
Clavicle
Anterior S-shaped bone of the pectoral girdle that articulates with the sternum and scapula
Collarbone
Another name for the clavicle
Sternal end
The medial end of the clavicle that articulates with the manubrium of the sternum
Acromial end
The lateral end of the clavicle that articulates with the acromion of the scapula
Conoid tubercle
A bump near the lateral acromial end of the inferior surface of the clavicle that is a point of attachment to the conoid ligament.
Scapula
Shoulderblade
Spine
A prominent ridge that runs diagonally across the posterior surface of the scapula
Acromion
A flattened, expanded process at the lateral end of the spine of the scapula
Glenoid cavity
A shallow depression on the scapula that accepts the head of the humerus
Medial border
The thin edge of the scapula closer to the vertebral column
Vertebral border
Another name for the medial border of the scapula
Lateral border
The thick edge of the scapula closer to the arm
Axillary border
Another name for the lateral border of the scapula
Inferior angle
The point on the scapula where the medial and lateral borders join together
Superior border
The uppermost edge of the scapula
Superior angle
The point on the scapula where the medial and superior borders join together
Scapular notch
A prominent indentation along the superior border of the scapula through which the suprascapular nerve passes
Coracoid process
A projection of the anterior surface of the scapula, at the lateral end of the superior border, that serves as an attachment point for tendons of muscles (pectoralis minor, coracobrachialis, and biceps brachii) and ligaments
Supraspinous fossa
A shallow groove superior to the spine on the posterior surface of the scapula that is a surface of attachment for the supraspinatus muscle of the shoulder
Infraspinous fossa
A shallow groove inferior to the spine on the posterior surface of the scapula that is a surface of attachment for the infraspinatus muscle of the shoulder
Subscapular fossa
A slightly hollowed-out area on the anterior surface of the scapula that is a surface of attachment for the subscapularis muscle
Humerus
The longest and largest bone of the upper limb
Head of the humerus
The rounded, proximal end of the bone that articulates with the glenoid cavity of the scapula
Anatomical neck
An oblique groove distal to the head of the humerus; it is the former site of the epiphyseal (growth) plate in an adult humerus
Greater tubercle
A lateral projection of the humerus distal to the anatomical neck; the most laterally palpable bony landmark of the shoulder region
Lesser tubercle
An anterior projection of the humerus distal to the anatomical neck
Intertubercular sulcus
A groove between the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus
Surgical neck
A constriction in the humerus just distal to the greater and lesser tubercles, where the head tapers to the shaft; it is so named because fractures often occur here
Deltoid tuberosity
A roughened, V-shaped area on the lateral side of the middle portion of the shaft of the humerus that serves as a point of attachment for the tendons of the deltoid muscle
Capitulum
A rounded knob on the lateral aspect of the distal end of the humerus that articulates with the head of the radius
Trochlea
A spool-shaped surface on the medial aspect of the distal end of the humerus that articulates with the trochlear notch of the ulna
Coronoid fossa
A small anterior depression on the distal end of the humerus that receives the coronoid process of the ulna when the forearm is flexed
Olecranon fossa
A large posterior depression on the distal end of the humerus that receives the olecranon of the ulna when the forearm is extended
Medial epicondyle
A rough projection above the trochlea on the distal end of the humerus which serves as a point of attachment for muscles of the forearm
Lateral epicondyle
A rough projection above the capitulum on the distal end of the humerus which serves as a point of attachment for muscles of the forearm
Ulna
The longer bone on the medial aspect (the little-finger side) of the forearm
Olecranon
A large process at the proximal end of the posterior ulna that forms the prominence of the elbow
Coronoid process
An anterior projection at the proximal end of the ulna that articulates with the trochlea of the humerus
Trochlear notch
A large curved area between the olecranon and coronoid process on the proximal end of the ulna that forms part of the elbow joint
Radial notch
A depression on the ulna located lateral and inferior to the trochlear notch that articulates with the head of the radius
Ulnar tuberosity
A roughened area on the ulna just inferior to the coronoid process that serves as a point of attachment for the biceps brachii muscle
Styloid process of the ulna
A small projection located on the posterior side of the distal end of the ulna that serves as a point of attachment for the ulnar collateral ligament to the wrist
Radius
The shorter bone on the lateral aspect (thumb side) of the forearm
Head of the radius
The disc-shaped proximal end of the radius that articulates with the capitulum of the humerus and the radial notch of the ulna
Radial tuberosity
A roughened area inferior to the neck on the anteromedial side of the radius that serves as a point of attachment for the tendons of the biceps brachii muscle
Styloid process of the radius
A small projection located on the lateral side of the distal end of the radius that can be felt proximal to the thumb that serves as a point of attachment for the brachioradialis muscle
Carpals
The eight small bones of the wrist
Scaphoid
The most lateral carpal in the proximal row; has a boat-like shape
Lunate
The second carpal in the proximal row; has a moon-like shape
Triquetrum
The third carpal in the proximal row; has a three-cornered shape
Pisiform
The most medial carpal in the proximal row; has a pea-like shape
Trapezium
The most lateral carpal in the distal row; located under Metacarpal I
Trapezoid
The second carpal in the distal row
Capitate
The third carpal in the distal row; shaped like a head; the largest carpal bone
Hamate
The most medial carpal in the distal row; has a hook-like projection on its anterior surface
Metacarpals
The five bones that form the palm of the hand; numbered I-V starting with the thumb, from lateral to medial
Phalanges of the hand
The 14 bones of the digits that make up the five fingers
Phalanx
A single bone of a digit in the hand or foot
Proximal phalanx
The bone of digits I-V that articulates with a metacarpal (in the hand) or metatarsal (in the foot)
Middle phalanx
The bone only found in digits II-V of the hand and foot
Distal phalanx
The bone of digits II-V in the hand or foot that articulates with the middle phalanx; in digit I, it articulates with the proximal phalanx
Coxal bones
The two bones of the hip or pelvis; also called pelvic bones, hip bones, or os coxa
Pubic symphysis
The joint that unites the hip bones anteriorly; consists of a disc of fibrocartilage
Sacroiliac joints
The joints that unite the hip bones to the sacrum posteriorly
Pelvic girdle
Consists of the two hip bones
Ilium
The superior (and largest) portion of the hip bone
Pubis
The inferior and anterior portion of the hip bone
Ischium
The inferior and posterior portion of the hip bone
Acetabulum
The deep socket for the head of the femur, formed by the ilium, ischium, and pubis of the hip bone
Iliac crest
The superior border of the ilium
Anterior superior iliac spine
A blunt region on the anterior end of the iliac crest that serves as a point of attachment for the tendons of the muscles of the trunk, hip, and thighs
Posterior superior iliac spine
A sharp region on the posterior end of the iliac crest that serves as a point of attachment for the tendons of the muscles of the trunk, hip, and thighs
Anterior inferior iliac spine
A region of the ilium located below the anterior superior iliac spine that serves as a point of attachment for the tendons of the muscles of the trunk, hip, and thighs
Posterior inferior iliac spine
A region of the ilium located below the posterior superior iliac spine that serves as a point of attachment for the tendons of the muscles of the trunk, hip, and thighs
Greater sciatic notch
Located below the posterior inferior iliac spine; serves as a passage for the sciatic nerve (the longest nerve of the body) along with other nerves and muscles
Iliac fossa
A concavity located on the medial surface of the ilium that serves as a point of attachment for the tendon of the iliacus muscle
Ischial spine
The prominent process on the ischium
Lesser sciatic notch
Located just below the ischial spine
Ischial tuberosity
The rough and thickened region of the ischium
Obturator foramen
A large opening formed by the pubis and ischium of the hip bone
Femur
The longest, heaviest, and strongest bone in the body; also called the thigh bone
Head of the femur
Articulates with the acetabulum of the hip bone to form the hip (coxal) joint
Fovea capitis femoris
A small central depression on the head of the femur
Neck of the femur
A fracture in this area is more often associated with a "broken hip" than with an actual fracture of the hip bones
Greater trochanter
A projection on the lateral side of the femur that serves as a point of attachment for the tendons of some of the thigh and buttock muscles
Lesser trochanter
A projection on the medial side of the femur, inferior to the head and neck, that serves as a point of attachment for the tendons of some of the thigh and buttock muscles
Gluteal tuberosity
A vertical ridge on the posterior surface of the femur located inferior to the greater and lesser trochanter; serves as a point of attachment for tendons of several thigh muscles
Linea aspera
A vertical ridge on the posterior surface of the femur, located inferior to the gluteal tuberosity; serves as a point of attachment for tendons of several thigh muscles
Medial condyle of the femur
A large expansion of the distal end of the femur that articulates with the medial condyle of the tibia
Lateral condyle of the femur
A large expansion of the distal end of the femur that articulates with the lateral condyle of the tibia
Intercondylar fossa
A depressed area between the condyles on the posterior surface of the femur
Patella
A small, triangular bone located anterior to the knee joint; also called the kneecap
Base of the patella
The broad proximal end of the kneecap
Apex of the patella
The pointed distal end of the kneecap
Articular facets of the patella
Located on the posterior surface of the kneecap; articulate with the medial and lateral condyles of the femur
Tibia
The larger, medial, weight-bearing bone of the leg; also called the shin bone; the most frequently fractured long bone in the body
Medial condyle of the tibia
A large expansion of the proximal end of the tibia that articulates with the medial condyle of the femur
Lateral condyle of the tibia
A large expansion of the proximal end of the tibia that articulates with the lateral condyle of the femur; its inferior surface also articulates with the head of the fibula
Intercondylar eminence
An upward projection between the lateral and medial condyles of the tibia
Tibial tuberosity
A point of attachment for the patellar ligament; located on the anterior surface of the tibia
Anterior border
A sharp ridge on the tibia that can be felt below the skin; just inferior to the tibial tuberosity; also called the shin
Medial malleolus
A projection located on the medial surface of the distal end of the tibia that articulates with the talus of the ankle and forms the prominence that can be felt on the medial surface of the ankle
Fibula
The smaller of the two lower leg bones; located on the lateral side of the leg; does not articulate with the femur; helps stabilize the ankle joint
Head of the fibula
Located at the proximal end of the fibula; articulates with the inferior surface of the lateral condyle of the tibia
Lateral malleolus
An arrowhead-shaped projection located on the distal end of the fibula that articulates with the talus of the ankle
Tarsal bones
Seven bones that make up the ankle
Talus
The most superior tarsal bone; the only bone of the foot that articulates with the tibia and fibula
Calcaneus
The largest, strongest, and most posterior tarsal bone; forms the heel of the foot
Navicular
An anterior tarsal bone shaped like a little boat
Cuneiform bones
Three wedge-shaped anterior tarsal bones
First cuneiform
The medial cuneiform bone
Second cuneiform
The intermediate cuneiform bone
Third cuneiform
The lateral cuneiform bone
Cuboid
The cube-shaped tarsal bone located just anterior to the calcaneus
Metatarsals
The five bones that form the intermediate region of the foot; numbered I-V starting with the great (or big) toe, from medial to lateral
Phalanges of the foot
The 14 bones of the digits that make up the five toes
Hallux
The great (or big) toe