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Why has the kingdom Protista been abandoned?

The kingdom Protista is polyphyletic AND
Some protists are more closely related to plants, animals, or fungi than they are to other protists

Select the correct statement about photosynthesis by primary producers

Photosynthetic protists and prokaryotes carry out the majority of the photosynthesis in aquatic communities.

Which of the features below are found in all protist lineages?
Organelles that arose by secondary endosymbiosis.


Which of the following statements supports the hypothesis of an endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria?

Each mitochondrion has its own DNA molecule.

An individual mixotroph loses its plastids, yet continues to survive. Which of the following most likely accounts for its continued survival?

It engulfs organic material by phagocytosis or by absorption.

A biologist discovers a new unicellullar organism that possesses more than two flagella and two small, but equal-sized, nuclei. The organism has reduced mitochondria (mitosomes), no chloroplasts, and is anaerobic. To which clade does this organism probably belong?

the diplomonads

Which of these taxa contains species that produce potent toxins that can cause extensive fish kills, contaminate shellfish, and poison humans?


Which of the following pairs of protists and their characteristics is mismatched?
entamoebas : ingestive heterotrophs
euglenozoans : unicellular flagellates
golden algae : planktonic producers
apicomplexans : internal parasites
ciliates : red tide organisms

ciliates : red tide organisms

You are given an unknown organism to identify. It is unicellular and heterotrophic. It is motile, using many short extensions of the cytoplasm, each featuring the 9+2 filament pattern. It has well-developed organelles and three nuclei, one large and two small. This organism is most likely to be a member of which group?


Why is the filamentous morphology of the water molds considered a case of convergent evolution with the hyphae (threads) of fungi?

In both cases, filamentous shape is an adaptation for the absorptive nutritional mode of a decomposer.

The Irish potato famine was caused by an organism that belongs to which group?


Thread-like pseudopods that can perform phagocytosis are generally characteristic of which group?

radiolarians and forams

A snail-like, coiled, porous test (shell) of calcium carbonate is characteristic of which group?


What makes certain red algae appear red?

They possess pigments that reflect and transmit red light.

The largest seaweeds belong to which group?

brown algae

A biologist discovers an alga that is marine, multicellular, and lives at a depth reached only by blue light. This alga probably belongs to which group?

red algae

If the Archaeplastidae are eventually designated a kingdom, and if the land plants are excluded from this kingdom, then what will be true of this new kingdom?

It will be paraphyletic

Which pair of alternatives is highlighted by the life cycle of the cellular slime molds, such as Dictyostelium?

unicellular or multicellular

Which of the following correctly pairs a protist with one of its characteristics?
diplomonads : micronuclei involved in conjugation
apicomplexans : parasitic
ciliates : pseudopods
foraminiferans : abundant in soils
gymnamoebas : calcium carbonate test

apicomplexans : parasitic

Which of the following is correctly described as a primary producer?


You are given the task of designing an aerobic, mixotrophic protist that can perform photosynthesis in fairly deep water (e.g., 250 m deep), and can also crawl about and engulf small particles. With which two of these structures would you provide your protist?
1. hydrogenosome
2. apicoplast
3. pseudopods
4. chloroplast from red alga
5. chloroplast from green alga

pseudopods and chloroplast from red algae

Plastids that are surrounded by more than two membranes are evidence of

secondary endosymbiosis.

A snail-like, coiled, porous test (shell) of calcium carbonate is characteristic of which group?


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