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the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union

freedmen's Bureau

Organization run by the army to care for and protect southern Blacks after the Civil War


the act of excusing a mistake or offense

Fourteenth Amendment

Gave African Americans citizenship

Military reconstruction Act

1867; divided the South into five districts and placed them under military rule; required Southern States to ratify the 14th amendment; guaranteed freedmen the right to vote in convention to write new state constitutions

fifteenth Amendment

a constitutional amendment that gave African American men the right to vote

Andrew Johnson

17th president of the United States, came to office after Lincoln's assassination and opposed Radical Republicans; he was impeached

debt peonage

a system in which a person is forced to work to pay off debts


Northerner who traveled south to make money off of the Reconstruction.


white Southerner supporting Reconstruction policies after the Civil War usually for self-interest


A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.

tenant farmer

farmer who works land owned by another and pays rent either in cash or crops

Ku Klux Klan

founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American

Rutherford B. Hayes

19th President, ended reconstruction by removing federal troops, disputed Tilden/Hayes election resulted in the Compromise of 1877

US sanitary commission

founded to provide adequate health care and stop the spread of disease


to accuse government officials of misconduct in office

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