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Ancient India

From the text book, "Ancient Civilizations" by Holt Social Studies.
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subcontinent
A large landmass that is smaller than a continent. It is usually separated from the rest of the continent by physical features, such as mountains.
monsoons
Seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons.
Sanskrit
The most important language of ancient India.
caste system
The division of Indian society into groups based on rank, wealth, or occupation.
Hinduism
The main religion of India, it teaches that everything is part of a universal spirit called Brahman.
reincarnation
A Hindu and Buddhist belief that souls are born and reborn many times, each time into a new body,
karma
In Buddhism and Hinduism, the effects that good or bad actions have on a person's soul.
Jainism
An Indian religion based on the teachings of Mahavira that teaches all life is sacred.
nonviolence
The avoidance of violent actions.
fasting
Going without food for a period of time.
meditation
Deep continued thought that focuses the mind on spiritual ideas.
the Buddha
Founder of Buddhism, he was originally an Indian prince name Siddhartha Gautama. He founded the Buddhist religion after a long spiritual journey through India.
Buddhism
A religion based on the teachings of the Buddha that developed in India in the 500s BCE.
nirvana
In Buddhism, a state of perfect peace.
missionary
Someone who works to spread religious beliefs.
Candragupta Maurya
Mauryan ruler, he founded the Mauryan Empire in northern India.
Asoka
Ruler of the Mauryan Empire, he extended his control over most of India and promoted the spread of Buddhism.
Candra Gupta II
Gupta emperor, he ruled India during the height of Gupta power.
metallurgy
The science of working with metals.
alloy
A mixture of two or more metals.
Hindu-Arabic Numeral
The number system we use today; it was created by Indian scholars during the Gupta dynasty.
inoculation
Injecting a person with a small dose of a virus to help build up defenses to a disease.
astronomy
The study of stars and planets.