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From the text book, "Ancient Civilizations" by Holt Social Studies.


A large landmass that is smaller than a continent. It is usually separated from the rest of the continent by physical features, such as mountains.


Seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons.


The most important language of ancient India.

caste system

The division of Indian society into groups based on rank, wealth, or occupation.


The main religion of India, it teaches that everything is part of a universal spirit called Brahman.


A Hindu and Buddhist belief that souls are born and reborn many times, each time into a new body,


In Buddhism and Hinduism, the effects that good or bad actions have on a person's soul.


An Indian religion based on the teachings of Mahavira that teaches all life is sacred.


The avoidance of violent actions.


Going without food for a period of time.


Deep continued thought that focuses the mind on spiritual ideas.

the Buddha

Founder of Buddhism, he was originally an Indian prince name Siddhartha Gautama. He founded the Buddhist religion after a long spiritual journey through India.


A religion based on the teachings of the Buddha that developed in India in the 500s BCE.


In Buddhism, a state of perfect peace.


Someone who works to spread religious beliefs.

Candragupta Maurya

Mauryan ruler, he founded the Mauryan Empire in northern India.


Ruler of the Mauryan Empire, he extended his control over most of India and promoted the spread of Buddhism.

Candra Gupta II

Gupta emperor, he ruled India during the height of Gupta power.


The science of working with metals.


A mixture of two or more metals.

Hindu-Arabic Numeral

The number system we use today; it was created by Indian scholars during the Gupta dynasty.


Injecting a person with a small dose of a virus to help build up defenses to a disease.


The study of stars and planets.

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