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47 terms

Nutrition

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The process by which food is broken down into absorbable components is called
digestion
What is mastication?
The act of chewing
What is the lumen of the GI tract?
The inner space
In what organ does the digestion process begin?
the mouth
What is umami?
The flavor of monosodium glutamate
Which of the following is not a sphincter muscle?
duodenum
A bolus is conducted past the diaphragm through the
esophagus
What is one function of the pyloric sphincter?
c
Into what region of the intestinal tract does the stomach empty?
duodenum
What is the name given to partially digested food in the stomach?
chyme
What structure separates the colon from the small intestine?
illoceal valve
Which of the following is a feature of peristalsis?
d, wavelike
What structure controls the release of material from the stomach to the small intestine?
b, plyoric sphnicter
During the process of digestion, at what point does the stomach begin to release chyme?
b, when chyme is liquified
Which of the following is a function of sphincter muscles?
d
The lower esophageal sphincter is also known as the
b, cardiac sphnitcter
What types of enzymes are responsible for hydrolyzing the proteins in foods?
c, proteases
All of the following are characteristics of the process of digestion except
c
What is the function of mucus in the stomach?
d
What is a function of hydrochloric acid in the stomach?
d
Why is there little or no digestion of starch in the stomach?
d
What is the fate of any enzymes that are present in the foods we eat?
a
Important functions of hydrochloric acid in digestion/absorption include all the following except
b
After chewing and swallowing a portion of food, what becomes of the salivary amylase in the stomach?
a
Which of the following body organs does not secrete digestive enzymes?
a, liver
The colonic fermentation of certain fibers produces all of the following except
c, secretin
Which of the following is an important function of the intestinal villi crypts?
b
Which of the following is a function of the intestinal microvilli?
c
Which of the following are found on the microvilli and function to break apart small nutrients into the final products of digestion?
c, enzymes
When nutrients are transported from intestinal epithelial cells to the vascular system, what organ is first to receive them?
a, liver
When alcohol and barbiturates are ingested, they are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and transported first to the
a, liver
Which of the following conducts lymph into the vascular system?
c
Which of the following is a feature of the lymphatic system?
a
Immediately after absorption, what circulatory system carries the fat-soluble vitamins and large fats?
c
What is the primary role of the normal, thriving intestinal bacterial population?
b
Which of the following stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice?
b, secretin
Which of the following is a characteristic of pancreatic digestive enzyme function?
c
The chief functions of cholecystokinin include all of the following except
c
The chief purpose of the gallbladder is to store a substance that is required for the assimilation of dietary
a
A decrease in the flow of blood to the intestines is known as
d
Jim went for his annual medical check-up and was diagnosed with heartburn. Which of the following actions is most likely causing Jim's condition?
d
All of the following are features of stomach acid except
d
All of the following are important issues in the treatment or management of existing ulcers except
c
A peptic ulcer resides in the
c
All of the following are the chief causes of ulcers except
b, caffeine
All of the following are major causes of ulcer formation except
b
organism H. pylori has been identified as one of the major causes of
d