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7th grade basis world history flashcards

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Mesopotamia
A region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that developed the first urban societies. In the Bronze Age this area included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires, In the Iron Age, it was ruled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires.
ziggurat
A temple tower of ancient Mesopotamia, constructed of square or rectangular terraces of diminishing size, usually with a shrine made of blue enamel bricks on the top
cuneiform
The earliest known form of writing, which was used by the Sumerians. The name derives from the wedge shaped marks made with a stylus into soft clay. Used from the 3000s BCE to the 100s BCE.
Sumer
The world's first civilization, founded in Mesopotamia, which existed for over 3,000 years.
Xia
A legendary Chinese dynasty that was not believed to exist until relatively recently. Walled towns ruled by area-specific kings assembled armies, built cities, and worked bronze. Created pictograms which would evolve in to the first Chinese script.
Shang Dynasty
Succeeded the Xia dynasty. Rulers and their relatives gave orders through a large network of cities. Largest Chinese dynasty so far, controlled close to 40,000 square miles. The first dynasty in the dynasties song.
Zhou Dynasty
Succeeded the Shang dynasty. Similar to the Shang And Xia dynastic periods in that China was fragmented politically. Yet, despite the lack of true centralization, this was one of the longest Chinese dynasties, lasting about 600 years. It left substantial written records, unlike the preceding dynasties.
Yellow River
Also known as the Huang-He river. The second longest river in China and the sixth longest in the world.
oracle bones
The earliest known Chinese writing is found on these from ritual activity of the Shang period.
Teotihuacan
A large central city in the Mesoamerican region. Located about 25 miles Northeast of present day Mexico City. Exhibited city planning and unprecedented size for its time. Reached its peak around the year 450.
Jenne-Jeno
One of the first urbanized centers in western Africa. A walled community home to approximately 50,000 people at its height. Evidence suggests domestication of agriculture and trade with nearby regions.
Great Zimbabwe
A stone-walled enclosure found in Southeast Africa. Have been associated with trade, farming, and mining.
Hammurabi
The first king of the Babylonian Empire. Best known for his legal code.
Code of Hammurabi
A collection of 282 laws. One of the first (but not THE first) examples of written law in the ancient world.
Hittites
An ancient Anatolian group whose empire at largest extent consisted of most of the Middle East. Some of the first two-wheeled chariots and iron.
Assyrians
Descendants of the Akkadians who participated in warfare and trade in the region of Mesopotamia. Established an independent state around 1900 BCE.
Zoroastrianism
One of the first widely followed monotheistic religions. Prominent in Babylonia.
Zoroaster
The founder of Persia's classical pre-Islamic religion.
Helenistic
Of or influenced by the Greek Empire. A type of culture typically referred to after the conquests of Alexander the Great.
Minoans
One of the early proto-Greek peoples from 2600 BCE to 1500 BCE. Inhabitants of the island of Crete.
Acropolis
Greek for "high city". The chief temples of the city were located here.
Plato
Socrates' most well known pupil. Founded an academy in Athens.
Pax Romana
The "Roman Peace", that is, the state of comparative concord prevailing within the boundaries of the Roman Empire from the reign of Augustus (27 B.C.E.-14 C.E.) to that of Marcus Aurelius (161-180 C.E.)
Republic
A state that is not ruled by a hereditary leader (a monarchy) but by a person or persons appointed under the constitution
Centuries
The smallest units of the Roman army, each composed of some 100 foot soldiers and commanded by a centurion. A legion was made up of 60 of these. They also formed political divisions of Roman citizens.
Consul
Under the Roman Republic, one of the two magistrates holding supreme civil and military authority. Nominated by the Senate and elected by citizens in the Comitia Centuriata, the consuls held office for one year and each had power of veto over the other.
Patricians
land-owning noblemen in Ancient Rome
Plebians
all non-land-owning, free men in Ancient Rome
Paterfamilias
the head of the family or household in Roman law -always male- and the only member to have full legal rights. This person had absolute power over his family, which extended to life and death.
Twelve Tables or Twelve Tablets
Completed in 449 BCE, these civil laws developed by the Roman Republic to protect individual following demands by plebeians.
Triumvirate
An unofficial coalition between Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus was formed in 60 B.C.E.
Julius Caesar
An unofficial coalition between Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus was formed in 60 B.C.E.
Octavius
Part of the second triumvirate whom the power eventually shifted to. Assumed the name Augustus Caesar, and became emperor. Was the end of the Roman Republic and the start of the Pax Romana.
Diocletian
Roman emperor of 284 C.E. Attempted to deal with fall of Roman Empire by splitting the empire into two regions run by co-emperors. Also brought armies back under imperial control, and attempted to deal with the economic problems by strengthening the imperial currency, forcing a budget on the government, and capping prices to deal with inflation. Civil war erupted upon his retirement.
Bread and Circuses
A Roman bribery method of coping with class difference. Entertainment and food was offered to keep plebeians quiet without actually solving unemployment problems.
legalism
A school of Chinese philosophy that come into prominence during the period of the Warring states and had great influence on the policies of the Qin dynasty. People following this took a pessimistic view of human nature and believed that social harmony could only be attained through strong government control and the imposition of strict laws, enforced absolutely.
Huns
large nomadic group from northern Asia who invaded territories extending from China to Eastern Europe. They virtually lived on their horses, herding cattle, sheep, and horses as well as hunting.
Yellow Turban/Scarf Rebellion
A 184 C.E. peasant revolt against emperor Ling of Han. Led by Daoists who proclaimed that a new era would be3ing with the fall of the Han. Although this specific revolt was suppressed, it triggered a continuous string of additional outbreaks.
Liu Bang
First emperor of the Han dynasty under which a new social and political hierarchy emerged. Scholars were on top, followed by farmers, artisans, and merchants. He chose his ministers from educated men with Confucian principals.
Aryans
immigrants who arrived at the Ganges river valley by the year 1000 BC
Vedas
compilations of hymns, religious reflections, and Aryan conquests
Mahabharata
the longest single poem in the world, about a war fought between two branches of the same family. One of India's greatest epics written between 1000 and 700 BC
Dharma
the fulfillment of social and religious duties in Hinduism
Siddhartha Guatama
the founder of Buddhism
Rigveda
a book composed by Brahman priests that contains verses and Sanskrit poetry
Caste System
a social system that separated people by occupation, the caste system in India has virtually no mobility
Nirvana
release from suffering into a blissful nothingness
Jainism
An ancient religion of India with a small following today of only about 10 million followers. Originated in the 800s BCE. They prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice rely mainly on self-effort to progress the soul up the spiritual ladder to divine consciousness. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state of supreme being is called jina (Conqueror or Victor).
Silk Road
connected China, India, and the Middle East. Traded goods and helped to spread culture.
Mentuhotep I
Egyptian pharaoh who founded the Middle Kingdom by REUNITING Upper and Lower Egypt in 2134 BCE.
Olmec
Mesoamerican civilization in lower Mexico around 1500 BCE to about 400 BCE focused. Most remembered for their large stone heads.
Maya
Extensive Mesoamerican culture that made great advances in astronomy in areas such as their famous calendar. Hint... Hint.. They predicted that the world will end in 2012!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Mycenae
Sea-faring proto-Greek kingdom whose abrupt demise triggered the Greek Dark Ages ca. 1200 BCE-800 BCE.
Persia
Mesopotamian empire that conquered the existing Median, Lydian, and Babylonian empires
Polis
Form of government in which power is centralized into a local city-state.
Solon
Early Greek leader who brought democratic reforms such as his formation of the Council of Four Hundred
Pericles
Ruler of Athens who zealously sought to spread Athenian democracy through imperial force
Peloponnesian Wars
Conflict between Athens and Sparta
Macedonia
Area between the Greek and Slavic regions; conquered Greece and Mesopotamia under the leadership of Philip II and Alexander the Great
Philip II
Macedonian king who sought to unite Greece under his banner until his murder
Ptolemy
Subordinate to Alexander who took over Egypt after his death
Stoicism
Roman philosophy which emphasizes accepting life dispassionately
Qin
1st unified imperial Chinese dynasty
Epic of Gilgamesh
an epic poem from Mesopotamia, and among the earliest known works of literary writing.
Hieroglyphics
designating or pertaining to a pictographic script, particularly that of the ancient Egyptians, in which many of the symbols are conventionalized, recognizable pictures of the things represented
Hoplite
a citizen-soldier of the Ancient Greek City-states. They were primarily armed as spear-men
Diaspora
a citizen-soldier of the Ancient Greek City-states. They were primarily armed as spear-men
Punic Wars
the three wars waged by Rome against Carthage, 264-241, 218-201, and 149-146 b.c., resulting in the destruction of Carthage and the annexation of its territory by Rome.
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Buddhism
a religion, originated in India by Buddha (Gautama) and later spreading to China, Burma, Japan, Tibet, and parts of southeast Asia, holding that life is full of suffering caused by desire and that the way to end this suffering is through enlightenment that enables one to halt the endless sequence of births and deaths to which one is otherwise subject.
Mandate of heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
Sanskrit
an Indo-European, Indic language, in use since c1200 b.c. as the religious and classical literary language of India.
Diffusion
The spread of ideas, objects, or traits from one culture to another
empire
The extension of political rule by one people over other, different peoples
Darius I
General in the Persian army who took power when Cambyses II died; he continued many of Cyrus' policies and was a more capable ruler than Cambyses
Aristotle
Pupil of Plato who tutored Alexander the Great; argued for small units of government like the city-state
Alexander the Great
King of Macedonia who conquered Greece, Egypt, and Persia
Constantinople
City founded as the second capital of the Roman Empire; later became the capital of the Byzantine Empire
Confucianism
Chinese ethical and philosophical teachings of Confucius which emphasized education, family, peace, and justice
Daoism or Taoism
Philosophy that teaches that everything should be left to the natural order; rejects many of the Confucian ideas but coexisted with Confucianism in China
Carthage
City in North Africa that developed trading outposts in Italy; Rome toke control of many of its outposts after the two Punic Wars
Augustus
Title given the the Roman emperor Octavian which means "sacred" or "venerable"
Constantine
Roman emperor who adopted Christianity for the Roman Empire and who founded Constantinople as a second capital
urbanization
the movement of people to Urban areas in search of work.
Vishnu
a major Hindu god called The Preserver.
Capitalism
Economic system with private/ corporate ownership/ competitive market
Agricultural Revolution
The change from food gathering to food production that occurred between around 8000 and 2000 B.C.E. Also known as the Neolithic Revolution.
Asoka
Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India (r. 270-232 B.C.E.). He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing.
Augustus Caesar
Honorific name of Octavian, founder of the Roman Principate, the military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate. He established his rule after the death of Julius Caesar and he is considered the first Roman Emperor.
Babylon
The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia. It achieved particular eminence as the capital of the king Hammurabi in the eighteenth century B.C.E. and the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century B.C.E. (p. 29)
Bantu
A major African language family. Collective name of a large group of sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking these languages. Famous for migrations throughout central and southern Africa.
Buddha
An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming 'enlightened' (the meaning of this word) he enunciated the principles of Buddhism.
city-state
A small independent state consisting of an urban center and the surrounding agricultural territory. A characteristic political form in early Mesopotamia, Archaic and Classical Greece, Phoenicia, and early Italy. clipper ship,Large, fast, streamlined sailing vessel, often American built, of the mid-to-late nineteenth century rigged with vast canvas sails hung from tall masts.
Confucious
His doctrine of duty and public service had a great influence on subsequent Chinese thought and served as a code of conduct for government officials. Although his real name was Kongzi (551-479 B.C.E.).
Constantine
Roman emperor (r. 312-337). After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a tolerated/favored religion.
Democracy
system of government in which all 'citizens' (however defined) have equal political and legal rights, privileges, and protections, as in the Greek city-state of Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E. Demographic Transition,A change in the rates of population growth. Before the transition, both birth and death rates are high, resulting in a slowly growing population; then the death rate drops but the birth rate remains high, causing a population explosion. (867)
Ethiopia
East African highland nation lying east of the Nile River.
Great Zimbabwe
City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were built between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state.
Gupta Empire
Powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture.
Han
A term used to designate (1) the ethnic Chinese people who originated in the Yellow River Valley and spread throughout regions of China suitable for agriculture and (2) the dynasty of emperors who ruled from 206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.
Harappa
Site of one of the great cities of the Indus Valley civilization of the third millennium B.C.E. It was located on the northwest frontier of the zone of cultivation, and may have been a center for the acquisition of raw materials.
Hatshepsut
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged.
Herodotus
Greek Historian, considered the father of History. He came from a Greek community in Anatolia and traveled extensively, collecting information in western Asia and the Mediterranean lands.
Hinduism
Term for a wide variety of beliefs and ritual practices that have developed in the Indian subcontinent since antiquity. It has roots in ancient Vedic, Buddhist, and south Indian religious concepts and practices.
Inca
Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile from its capital of Cuzco.
Karma
In Indian tradition, the residue of deeds performed in past and present lives that adheres to a 'spirit' and determines what form it will assume in its next life cycle. Used in India to make people happy with their lot in life.