291 terms

Caesar Core Vocabulary: The Big List

words occurring 5 or more times on the AP Caesar curriculum
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tamen
however, nevertheless
tantus, -a, -um
so great, so large
telum, -ī
n.: projectile, weapon, blow
tempus, temporis
n.: time, occasion
teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentum
to hold, keep
tertius, -a, -um
third
Titurius, -ī
m.: Titurius
tōtus -a, -um
whole, entire
trānseō, -īre, -iī (īvī), itus
to go across, cross, pass (by)
trēs, tria
three
tum
then, at that time
turris, turris
f.: tower, walled tower, turret
tūtus, -a, -um
safe, secure, guarded
ūllus, -a, -um
any
undīque
(from) everywhere, from or on all sides
ūnus, -a, -um
one
ūsus, -ūs
use, practice, application
ut
(+ subjunctive) so that, in order that, that
(+ indicative) as, just as, when
uterque, utraque, utrumque
each (of two)
ūtor, -ī, ūsus sum
(+ abl.) to use, enjoy, employ
vallum, -ī
wall, fortification, palisade, rampart
veniō, -īre, vēnī, ventus
to come
victoria, -ae
f.: victory
videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsum
to see
virtūs, -ūtis
f.: courage, valor, manhood,excellence
vīta, -ae
f.: life
volō, velle, voluī
to wish, be willing
Vorēnus, -ī
m.: Vorenus
quantus, -a, -um
how great, how much, how many
-que
and
quī, quae, quod
who, which, that
(relative pronoun and interrogative adjective)
quis, quid
who? what? (interrogative pronoun)
quidem
indeed, in fact, certainly
Quintus, -ī
m.: Quintus
quisque, quidque
each one, each person
ratio, ratiōnis
f.: calculation, account, method
recipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptum
take back, recover
regnum, -ī
n.: royal power, kingdom, realm
relinquō, -ere, -līquī, -lictum
to leave behind
reliquus, -a, um
remaining, the rest of
rēs, reī
f.: thing, matter, affair, business
resistō, -ere, -stitī
stand still, halt; oppose
Rhēnus, -ī
m.: Rhine River
Rhodanus, -a, -um
Rhone
Rōmānus, -a, -um
of Rome, Roman
(as a substantive) a Roman
Sabīnus, ī
m.: Sabinus
salūs, -ūtis
f.: safety, refuge; health
--, sui, sibi, sē, sē
himself, herself, itself, themselves
sed
but, moreover, however,
Sēquanus, -a, -um
Sequanian
sēsē
(emphatic form of reflexive sē)
if (only), whether, in case that
signum -ī
n.: sign, signal; gesture, seal
sine
(+ abl.) without
singulus, -a, -um
one by one, separate, single, individual
spērō (1)
to hope (for), expect
spēs, -ēī
f.: hope, expectation
sub
(+ acc. w/motion; + abl. = place): under, below, beneath, underneath
subitō
suddenly
subsequor, -ī, secūtus sum
to follow after or behind
subsidium, iī
n.: reserve troops; third line of battle
sum, esse, fuī, futūrum
to be
summus, -a, -um
top of, highest (part of)
superō (1)
to surpass, overcome, defeat
superus, -a, -um
upper, higher, above
sustineō, -ēre, -uī
to hold up, sustain
suus, -a, -um
his own, her own, its own, their own
ob
(+ acc.) on account of, because of
obsēs, obsidis
m./f.: hostage
obtineō, -ēre, -uī, -tentum
to hold, maintain
omnis, omne
every, all
oppugnātio, -tiōnis
f.: an assault, attack
oppugnō (1)
attack, capture by assault
ōrātio, -ionis
f.: speaking, speech, language
ordō, -inis
m.: order, line, array; status
Orgetorix, -is
m.: Orgetorix
pars, partis
f.: part, side, direction
passus, -ūs
(m.) step, pace
mille passuum
a mile
paulus, -a, -um
little, small
pāx, pācis
f.: peace, treaty, quiet
per
(+ acc.) through, across
perīculum, -ī
n.: risk, danger, peril
permoveō, -ēre
to move deeply, trouble, excite, agitate
persuādeō, -ēre, -suāsī, -suāsum
to persuade, convince
pertineō, -ēre, -tinuī
to pertain to, reach, stretch to
perturbō (1)
to confuse, disturb, throw into confusion
perveniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventum
to arrive
pēs, pedis
m.: foot
petō, petere, petīvī, petītum
seek, aim at
plērumque
for the most part, mostly, commonly
ponō, ponere, posuī, positum
to put, place
populus, -ī
m.: people, nation
possum, posse, potuī
to be able, can
post
(+ acc.) : after, behind
afterward, next
praemium, -ī
n.: reward, prize
praestō, -āre, -stitī, -stitus
to perform, show, be better
premō, -ere, pressī, pressus
to press, check, pursue, control
prīmus -a -um
first
prīvō (1)
to deprive of, rob, strip from (abl)
prō
(+ abl.) before, for, in behalf of
probō (1)
to approve, commend
proelium, -iī
n.: battle, combat
profectio, -ōnis
f.: departure, a setting out
proficīscor, -ī, -fectus
to set out, depart
prohibeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus
keep off, prohibit
propter
(+ acc.) propter
prōvincia, -ae
f.: province
proximus, -a, -um
nearest, very close, next
pūblicus, -a, -um
public, common
pugna, -ae
f.: battle, fight
pugnō (1)
to fight
Pullo, Pullōnis
m.: Pullo
Labiēnus, ī
m.: Labienus
lēgātus, -ī
m.: an envoy, legate
legio, -ōnis
f.: legion, (~4200 soldiers)
licet, licēre, licuit
(impers. verb) it is allowed or permitted
littera, -ae
(f.) a letter of the alphabet; (pl.) an epistle/letter, literature
locus, -ī
m.: place, region, location
(pl. can also be neuter)
longē
far, at a distant
longus -a, -um
long
Lucius, -ī
m.: Lucius
magnitūdo, -inis
f.: greatness, size
magnus, -a, -um
great, large; mighty, important
maior, maius
greater, larger, older
manus, manūs
f.: hand; group
maximē
exceedingly especially
maximus, -a, -um
greatest, largest
mīles, mīlitis
m.: soldier
mīlle
(pl). mīlia, -ium
thousand
thousands
minor, minus
less, smaller, younger
mittō, -ere, mīsī, missus
send, hurl, dismiss
mors, mortis
f.: death
multitūdo, inis
f.: multitude, population, people
multus, -a, -um
much, many
mūnītio, -iōnis
f.: fortification, paving
nam
for
nāvis, nāvis
f.: ship, boat
lest, so that... not, not
(introduces purpose, indirect command, fear clauses
well as negative jussive subjunctives)
neque
and...not; nor
neque...neque
neither...nor
Nerviī, -iōrum
m. pl.: Nervii (Belgic Gauls)
nihil
nothing
nisi
if not, unless
nōn
not
noster, nostra, nostrum
our
nox, noctis
f.: night
nūllus, -a, -um
none, no, no one
numerus, -ī
m.: number, multitude
nuntius, -iī
m.: messenger
Gallia, -ae
f: Gaul (the place)
Gallus, -a, -um:
Gallic
(as a substantive): a Gaul (person)
genus, generis
n.: origin, kind, sort
Germānus, -a, -um
German
(as a substantive): a German
gerō, -ere, gessī, gestus
carry (on), wage
gravis, -e
heavy, serious, severe; venerable
habeō, -ēre, habuī, -itus
have, hold; consider
Helvētius, -a, -um
Helvetian (Swiss)
(as a Substantive): a Helvetian
hīberna, -ōrum
n. pl.: winter-quarters
hic, haec, hoc
this, these
homō, -inis
m./f.: man, mortal, human
hostis, -is
m./f.: stranger, enemy, foe
ibi
there, in that place
īdem, eadem, idem
the same
ille, illa, illud
that, those
impedīmentum, -ī
n.: baggage, impediment
imperium, -ī
n.: command, power
imperō (1)
command, order, bid
impetus, -ūs
m.: attack, assault, onset
in
(+ acc.): into, onto, against
(+ abl.): in, on
incitō (1)
put into motion, urge on
inferō, -ferre, -tulī, illātum
wage, carry on
initium, -ī
n.: beginning, entrance
inter
(+ acc.) between, among
interim
meanwhile, in the meantime
interficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectum:
kill, slay, destroy
intermittō, -ere
interrupt, discontinue, leave off
ipse, ipsa, ipsum
-self; the very
is, ea, id
this, that, these, those, he, she, it, they
ita
so, thus
itaque:
and so
iter, itineris
(n.) n.: way, road, route, journey
iter facere
to march
iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussum
to order, command (+ acc. inf.)
(+ abl) (down) from; about, concerning
dēferō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātum
report, offer
dēmonstrō (1)
to show, demonstrate
dēsum, -esse, -fuī, -futūrum
be lacking, lack, fail
dīcō, -ere, dīxī, dictus
say, tell, call, name
diēs, -ēī
m./f.: day, time, season
discēdō, -ere, -cessī, -cessum
to go away, depart
disciplīna, -ae
f.: training, instruction
dō, dare, dedī, datum
give; grant
Druidēs, -um
m.: Druids
dūcō, -ere, dūxī, ductus
lead, draw (forward)
dum
while, as long as, until
duo, duae, duo
two
ē, ex
(+ abl.) out from, from, out of
Eburōnēs, -um
m.: Eburones (German)
efficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus
make, form
ēgredior, -ī, -gressus
go out, disembark
eques, equitis
m.: horseman, rider
equitātus, -ūs
m.: cavalry
et
and, also, even
etiam
also, even, besides
etsī
even if, although, though
exercitus, -ūs
m.: (trained) army
existimō (1)
judge, consider, think
facilis, -e
easy
facile
easily
faciō, -ere, fēcī, factum
do, make, perform; grant
facultās, -tātis
f.: opportunity, power, skill, ability
ferē
almost, nearly, closely
ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus
carry, bear, endure
fīlius, -iī
m.: son
fīnis, -is
m./f.: end, border; territory
fīnitimus, -a, -um
neighboring; (as noun) neighbors
flūmen, -inis
n.: river, stream
fortis, -e
strong, brave, valiant
frūmentum, -ī
n.: grain
barbarus, -a, -um
foreign, savage
Belgae, -ārum
m.: Belgians
bellum, -ī
n.: war
Britannia, -ae
f.: Britain
Caesar, -aris
m.: Caesar
calamitās, -tātis
f.: loss, misfortune, calamity, disaster
capiō, -ere, cēpī, captum
to take, capture, seize
castra, -ōrum
n.: camp, encampment
casus, -ūs
m.: misfortune, mishap; fall
causa, -ae
f.: reason, cause; case
celeritās, -tātis
f.: quickness, swiftness, speed
celeriter
quickly, swiftly, speedily
certus, -a, -um
definite, sure, certain, reliable
Cicero, Cicerōnis
m.: Cicero
circiter
(round) about, not far from
circumveniō, -īre
to come around, encircle
cīvitās cīvitātis
f.: state, citizenship
coepī, coepisse, coeptum
to have begun, began
cognōscō, -ere, -nōvī, -nitum
to learn, come to know, (perfect = know)
cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coāctum:
to collect; compel
cohors, cohortis
f.: cohort, company, troop
commūnis, -e
common
compleō, -ēre, -ēvī, -ētum
fill up, fill
complūres, -ium
several
concilium, -iī
n.: meeting, rendezvous
confirmō (1)
make strong, confirm strengthen
co(n)iciō, -ere, -iēcī
throw together, throw, take oneself
cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum
to try
cōnsilium, -iī
n.: plan, counsel
conspiciō, -ere, -spexī, -spectus
see, behold
constituō, -ere, -uī, -ūtus
decide, establish, resolve
consuescō, -ere, -ēvī, -suētum
to accustom (pfct. sys. = to be accustomed)
consuētūdo, -inis
f.: custom, habit
contineō, -ēre, -nuī, -tentum
hold or keep together
contrōversia, -ae
f.: dispute, debate
conveniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventus
come together, assemble
copia, -ae
f.: abundance, supply; (pl.) troops
Cotta, -ae
m.: Cotta
Crassus, -ī
m.: Crassus
cum
(prep. + abl.) with
(conj.) when, since, although
ā, ab
(away) from, by
{+ abl.}
absum, -esse, āfuī
be absent, lack
ac
and, and also, and even
accēdō, -ere, -cessī, -cessus
approach
accidō, -ere, accidī
to happen, fall to
accipiō
to take without effort, receive, get, accept
Aduātucī, -ōrum
m.: Aduatuci (in Belgae)
ad
to, toward; near, at
adventus, -ūs
m.: arrival, approach
ager, agrī
m.: field, land; farm
aliquī, -qua, -quod
some, any, definite
alius, -a, -ud
other, another, else
alii...alii
some.. the others
alter, -era, -erum
other (of two)
alter...alter
one...the other
altus, -a, -um
high, lofty, tall, deep
Ambiorix, -rigis
m.: Ambiorix
amīcitia, -ae
f.: friendship, alliance
animadvertō, -ere, -vertī, -versum
turn mind to, notice
animus, -ī
m: mind, spirit; pl. courage
annus, -ī
m.: year
appellō (1)
call, call by name
apud
among, at the house of (+ acc.)
arbitror, arbitrārī, arbitrātus sum
to judge, think
arma, -ōrum
n.pl.: arms, equipment, tools
ascendō, -ere, -ī, -ēnsus
ascend, mount
at
but; mind you; but, you say
atque
and, and also, and even
aut
or
aut...aut
either...or
autem
however, moreover
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