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responds quickly and consists of:
i. first line of defense- skin and mucosa prevent entry of microorganisms, external barrier
ii. second line of defense- antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes, and other cells
skin, mucous membranes, and their secretions make up the first line of defense; keratin and mucosa
presents a physical barrier to most microorganisms, resistant to weak acids and bases, bacterial enzymes, and toxins
epithelial chemical barriers
epithelial membranes produce protective chemicals that destroy microoganisms; skin acidity 3 to 5 pH which inhibits bacterial growth
respiratory tract mucosa
mucous-coated hairs in the nose trap inhaled particles, ciliated- cilia sweep dust and bacteria away from lower respiratory passages swallowed and enters stomach
WBC, phagocytic, wanders through loose connective tissue, absorb oxygen to form Hydrogen Peroxide and hyperchlorite which are both highly toxic
WBC, attacks worms such as tapeworms, produces hydrogen peroxide and toxic proteins that act as neurotoxins
WBC, secrete chemicals that activate neutrophils and eosinophils, release histamine that increases blood flow by vasodilation, secretes heparin that inhibits formation of blood clots that would impede leukocyte mobility
WBC, transform to macrophages, microglial cells in nervous tissue, kupffer cells in the liver, alveolar cells in the lung
enhance the innate defenses by attacking microorganisms directly and hindering microorganisms' ability to oreproduce
EX. interferon, complement proteins
genes that synthesize IFN are activated when a host cell is invaded by a virus, leave the infected cell and enter neighboring cells
30 or so proteins that circulate in the blood in an inactive form. major mechanism for destroying foreign substances in the body, synthesized in the liver
linked to the immune system, depends on the binding of antibodies to invade organisms
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