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a principle that geologic processes that occurred in the past can be explained by current geologic processes
the classification of living organisms in terms of their natural relationships; it includes describing, naming, and classifying the organisms
also known as biological anthropology. The systematic study of humans as biological organisms
Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name humans Homo sapiens
a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
the teaching of the origins of the world through a literal interpretation of the creation stories in the bible
movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)
diploid cell formed when the nucleus of a haploid sperm cell fuses with the nucleus of a haploid egg cell
process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
Simple forms of protein normally used to build tissues or, under some conditions, burned for energy
Essential Amino Acids
Amino acids that an animal cannot synthesize itself and must be obtained from food. Eight of these are essential in the human adult.
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein; also called messenger RNA.
short-chain RNA molecules present in the cell (in at least 20 varieties, each variety capable of combining with a specific amino acid) that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell (according
The idea that biological traits are controlled by individual factors rather than by a single all-encompassing hereditary agent.
Law of Segregation
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair
Law of Independent Assortment
each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random
When both phenotypes appear in heterozygous individuals; Examples: Blood type A crossd with B = type AB
The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism.
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits
chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis
theory of a stable, nonevolving population in which frequency of alleles do not change; only occurs in large, isolated populations with random mating, and no natural selection or mutations
Conditions for equilibrium
1. No Mutations because this will modify the gene pool 2. Random mating does not cause allele frequencies to change 3. No Natural selection 4. Extremely large population size 5. No gene flow
evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies
evolution on a large scale extending over geologic era and resulting in the formation of new taxonomic groups
form of natural selection by which the center of the curve remains in its current position; occurs when individuals near the center of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end
form of natural selection in which a single curve splits into two; occurs when individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. (p. 715)
effectively discredited the long-standing view that the earth's surface had been formed by short-lived cataclysms, such as biblical floods and earthquakes-his principle: uniformitarianism: same geological processes that are at work today slowly formed the earth's surface over an immensely long time
Scottish geologist who described the processes that have shaped the surface of the earth (1726-1797)
Paleontologist that demonstrated that species have become extinct many times in Earth's history, argued that catastrophic geologic events can lead to extinction to species (catastrophic), geologic time scale
Alfred Russel Wallace
English naturalist who formulated a concept of evolution that resembled Charles Darwin's (1823-1913)
1st biologist to offer a mechanism for how evolution occurs and to link diversity with adaptation to the environment. Concluded that more complex organizms are descended from less complex organisms. This theory was called the "inheritance of acquired characteristics." Stated that the environment can bring about inherited changed (used giraffe as an example)
captain of HMS Beagle during Charles Darwin's famous voyage; Bible Thumper; predicted the weather forecast; committed suicide by slitting his throat; pointed out the different types of turtles
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