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a principle that geologic processes that occurred in the past can be explained by current geologic processes


a classification of organisms into groups based on similarities of structure or origin etc


the classification of living organisms in terms of their natural relationships; it includes describing, naming, and classifying the organisms


a science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks


the earth science that studies fossil organisms and related remains


the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations


the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures

Physical Anthropology

also known as biological anthropology. The systematic study of humans as biological organisms


the ability to walk upright on two legs


Members of the order of mammals includes monkeys, apes, and humans

Binomial Nomenclature

Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name humans Homo sapiens

Scientific Method

a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions


the teaching of the origins of the world through a literal interpretation of the creation stories in the bible


a change or alteration in form or qualities

Gene Flow

movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population

Genetic Drift

The gradual changes in gene frequencies in a population due to random events

Natural Selection

process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest


haploid reproductive cells

Somatic cells

any cell in multicellular organism except an egg or sperm


organisms made up of one or more cells that have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles


single-celled organisms that do not have a membrane-bound nucleus


non-sex chromosomes


the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)


diploid cell formed when the nucleus of a haploid sperm cell fuses with the nucleus of a haploid egg cell


term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes


of a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes


process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell


cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

Amino Acids

Simple forms of protein normally used to build tissues or, under some conditions, burned for energy

Essential Amino Acids

Amino acids that an animal cannot synthesize itself and must be obtained from food. Eight of these are essential in the human adult.


Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production


threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next


The coexistence of two or more distinct forms in the same population.


a long chain of several amino acids


A single gene having multiple effects on an individuals phenotype


of or relating to an inheritable character that is controlled by several genes at once

Nitrogen Bases

adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine


the repetition of an experiment in order to test the validity of its conclusion


the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA


the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm


small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein


A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein; also called messenger RNA.


short-chain RNA molecules present in the cell (in at least 20 varieties, each variety capable of combining with a specific amino acid) that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell (according


a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine


a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction


the protoplasm of a cell excluding the nucleus


(genetics) attributes acquired via biological heredity from the parents


combination of genes in which a mixture of both traits show


The idea that biological traits are controlled by individual factors rather than by a single all-encompassing hereditary agent.

Monohybrid Cross

a cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits

Dihybrid Cross

hybridization using two traits with two alleles each

Law of Segregation

members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair

Law of Independent Assortment

each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random


When both phenotypes appear in heterozygous individuals; Examples: Blood type A crossd with B = type AB


trait that will show up in an organism's phenotype if gene is present


The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism.


one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits


the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism


The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its gentic make up.


having two identical alleles for a trait

homologous chromosome

chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

theory of a stable, nonevolving population in which frequency of alleles do not change; only occurs in large, isolated populations with random mating, and no natural selection or mutations

Conditions for equilibrium

1. No Mutations because this will modify the gene pool 2. Random mating does not cause allele frequencies to change 3. No Natural selection 4. Extremely large population size 5. No gene flow


evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies


evolution on a large scale extending over geologic era and resulting in the formation of new taxonomic groups


an assortment of things from which a choice can be made

Directional Selection

occurs when natural selection favors one of the extreme variations of a trait

Stabilizing Selection

form of natural selection by which the center of the curve remains in its current position; occurs when individuals near the center of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end

Disruptive Selection

form of natural selection in which a single curve splits into two; occurs when individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle

Balanced polymorphism

the ability of natural selection to maintain diversity in a population

HMS Beagle

Darwin's ship

Chimpanzee Chromosome Number


Charles Darwin

English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. (p. 715)

Charles Lyell

effectively discredited the long-standing view that the earth's surface had been formed by short-lived cataclysms, such as biblical floods and earthquakes-his principle: uniformitarianism: same geological processes that are at work today slowly formed the earth's surface over an immensely long time

James Hutton

Scottish geologist who described the processes that have shaped the surface of the earth (1726-1797)

George Cuvier

Paleontologist that demonstrated that species have become extinct many times in Earth's history, argued that catastrophic geologic events can lead to extinction to species (catastrophic), geologic time scale

Alfred Russel Wallace

English naturalist who formulated a concept of evolution that resembled Charles Darwin's (1823-1913)

Jean-Baptist Lamarck

1st biologist to offer a mechanism for how evolution occurs and to link diversity with adaptation to the environment. Concluded that more complex organizms are descended from less complex organisms. This theory was called the "inheritance of acquired characteristics." Stated that the environment can bring about inherited changed (used giraffe as an example)

Captain Fitzroy

captain of HMS Beagle during Charles Darwin's famous voyage; Bible Thumper; predicted the weather forecast; committed suicide by slitting his throat; pointed out the different types of turtles

Archbishop James Usher

calculated the date of the creation of earth using the only evidence of the age of Earth available to him: the old testament. used characters name to get approximate age

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