How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

80 terms

Human Evolution

Test 1
STUDY
PLAY
Uniformitarianism
a principle that geologic processes that occurred in the past can be explained by current geologic processes
Taxonomy
a classification of organisms into groups based on similarities of structure or origin etc
Systematics
the classification of living organisms in terms of their natural relationships; it includes describing, naming, and classifying the organisms
Geology
a science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks
Paleontology
the earth science that studies fossil organisms and related remains
Demography
the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations
Archaeology
the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures
Physical Anthropology
also known as biological anthropology. The systematic study of humans as biological organisms
Bipedalism
the ability to walk upright on two legs
Primates
Members of the order of mammals includes monkeys, apes, and humans
Binomial Nomenclature
Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name humans Homo sapiens
Scientific Method
a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
Creationism
the teaching of the origins of the world through a literal interpretation of the creation stories in the bible
Mutation
a change or alteration in form or qualities
Gene Flow
movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
Genetic Drift
The gradual changes in gene frequencies in a population due to random events
Natural Selection
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
Gametes
haploid reproductive cells
Somatic cells
any cell in multicellular organism except an egg or sperm
Eukaryotes
organisms made up of one or more cells that have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Prokaryotes
single-celled organisms that do not have a membrane-bound nucleus
Autosomes
non-sex chromosomes
Karyotype
the appearance of the chromosomal makeup of a somatic cell in an individual or species (including the number and arrangement and size and structure of the chromosomes)
Zygote
diploid cell formed when the nucleus of a haploid sperm cell fuses with the nucleus of a haploid egg cell
Diploid
term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
Haploid
of a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes
Meiosis
process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
Mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
Amino Acids
Simple forms of protein normally used to build tissues or, under some conditions, burned for energy
Essential Amino Acids
Amino acids that an animal cannot synthesize itself and must be obtained from food. Eight of these are essential in the human adult.
Mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
Chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
Polymorphism
The coexistence of two or more distinct forms in the same population.
Polypeptide
a long chain of several amino acids
Pleiotropy
A single gene having multiple effects on an individuals phenotype
Polygenic
of or relating to an inheritable character that is controlled by several genes at once
Nitrogen Bases
adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine
Replication
the repetition of an experiment in order to test the validity of its conclusion
Transcription
the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
Translation
the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
Ribosome
small particle in the cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein
mRNA
A type of RNA, synthesized from DNA, that attaches to ribosomes in the cytoplasm and specifies the primary structure of a protein; also called messenger RNA.
tRNA
short-chain RNA molecules present in the cell (in at least 20 varieties, each variety capable of combining with a specific amino acid) that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell (according
Uracil
a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA (but not in DNA) and derived from pyrimidine
Nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
Cytoplasm
the protoplasm of a cell excluding the nucleus
Inheritance
(genetics) attributes acquired via biological heredity from the parents
Blending
combination of genes in which a mixture of both traits show
Particulate
The idea that biological traits are controlled by individual factors rather than by a single all-encompassing hereditary agent.
Monohybrid Cross
a cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
Dihybrid Cross
hybridization using two traits with two alleles each
Law of Segregation
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair
Law of Independent Assortment
each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random
co-dominant
When both phenotypes appear in heterozygous individuals; Examples: Blood type A crossd with B = type AB
dominant
trait that will show up in an organism's phenotype if gene is present
recessive
The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism.
allele
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits
genotype
the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism
phenotype
The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its gentic make up.
homozygous
having two identical alleles for a trait
homologous chromosome
chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
theory of a stable, nonevolving population in which frequency of alleles do not change; only occurs in large, isolated populations with random mating, and no natural selection or mutations
Conditions for equilibrium
1. No Mutations because this will modify the gene pool 2. Random mating does not cause allele frequencies to change 3. No Natural selection 4. Extremely large population size 5. No gene flow
microevolution
evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies
macroevolution
evolution on a large scale extending over geologic era and resulting in the formation of new taxonomic groups
Selection
an assortment of things from which a choice can be made
Directional Selection
occurs when natural selection favors one of the extreme variations of a trait
Stabilizing Selection
form of natural selection by which the center of the curve remains in its current position; occurs when individuals near the center of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end
Disruptive Selection
form of natural selection in which a single curve splits into two; occurs when individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle
Balanced polymorphism
the ability of natural selection to maintain diversity in a population
HMS Beagle
Darwin's ship
Chimpanzee Chromosome Number
48
Charles Darwin
English naturalist. He studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution. (p. 715)
Charles Lyell
effectively discredited the long-standing view that the earth's surface had been formed by short-lived cataclysms, such as biblical floods and earthquakes-his principle: uniformitarianism: same geological processes that are at work today slowly formed the earth's surface over an immensely long time
James Hutton
Scottish geologist who described the processes that have shaped the surface of the earth (1726-1797)
George Cuvier
Paleontologist that demonstrated that species have become extinct many times in Earth's history, argued that catastrophic geologic events can lead to extinction to species (catastrophic), geologic time scale
Alfred Russel Wallace
English naturalist who formulated a concept of evolution that resembled Charles Darwin's (1823-1913)
Jean-Baptist Lamarck
1st biologist to offer a mechanism for how evolution occurs and to link diversity with adaptation to the environment. Concluded that more complex organizms are descended from less complex organisms. This theory was called the "inheritance of acquired characteristics." Stated that the environment can bring about inherited changed (used giraffe as an example)
Captain Fitzroy
captain of HMS Beagle during Charles Darwin's famous voyage; Bible Thumper; predicted the weather forecast; committed suicide by slitting his throat; pointed out the different types of turtles
Archbishop James Usher
calculated the date of the creation of earth using the only evidence of the age of Earth available to him: the old testament. used characters name to get approximate age