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25 terms

AP Bio Vocab: Ch. 22 and 23

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catastrophism
The hypothesis by Georges Cuvier that each boundary between strata corresponded in time to a catastrophe, such as a flood or drought, that had destroyed many of the species living there at that time
natural selection
Differential success in the reproduction of different phenotypes resulting from the interaction of organisms with their environment
evolution
All the changes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today
biogeography
The study of the past and present distribution of species
vestigial organ
A structure of marginal, if any, importance to an organism
homologous structure
Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry
gradualism
A view of Earth's history that attributes profound change to the cumulative product of slow but continuous processes
endemic
A species of plant or animal found in only one place on earth
artificial selection
The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits
taxonomy
Ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences, leading to a classification scheme; the branch of biology concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
The condition describing a non-evolving population
mutation
A change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity
directional selection
Natural selection that favors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range
gene pool
The total aggregate of genes in a population at any one time
duplication
An important source of genetic variation where small pieces of DNA are copied
fitness
The contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative to the contributions of other individuals
genetic drift
Unpredictable fluctuations in allele frequencies from one generation to the next because of a population's finite size
phenotypic polymorphism
The existence of two or more distinct morphs (discrete forms), each represented in a population in high enough frequencies to be readily noticeable
bottleneck effect
Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population
intersexual selection
Selection whereby individuals of one sex (usually females) are choosy in selecting their mates from individuals of the other sex; also called mate choice
intrasexual selection
A direct competition among individuals of one sex (usually the males in vertebrates) for mates of the opposite sex
gene flow
Genetic additions to or subtractions from a population resulting from the movement of fertile individuals or gametes
pseudogene
A DNA segment very similar to a real gene but which does not yield a functional product; a gene that has become inactivated in a particular species because of mutation
stabilizing selection
Natural selection that favors intermediate variants by acting against extreme phenotypes
founder effect
Genetic drift that occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population, with the result that the new population's gene pool is not reflective of the original population