The best approach for individuals is long-term, moderate lifestyle changes that include a balanced diet, daily physical activity, specific health-related goals, social support, and self-acceptance. Goals that are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and timely are key to long-term weight management. Behavior management strategies can also help. Communities can support healthy weight by promoting healthy foods, planning activity-friendly environments, supporting consumer awareness, and encouraging insurance coverage of obesity prevention programs. Aside from social pressures and cultural messages, which affect everyone, some people may be vulnerable to eating disorders because of a genetic predisposition, family factors, or other underlying emotional problems and characteristics, such as low self-esteem, a sense of powerlessness, perfectionism, and lack of coping skills. Eating disorders are more common among women than men and among gay men than heterosexual men. They are most common during the teens and early 20s and likely to occur during life transitions at any age. Frequent dieting, obesity, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder are all associated with an increased risk of eating disorders. The first step is recognition of the problem, and early recognition makes successful treatment more likely. Because they are mental disorders, treatment usually includes psychotherapy to address psychological issues, along with weight stabilization, behavior modification, nutritional rehabilitation and education, and, in some cases, medication, especially antidepressants. For anorexia, hospitalization may be required at first to prevent starvation. Treatment usually involves the whole family, and recovery can be lifelong. Health is defined by the World Health Organization as a state of complete physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being, not just the absence of disease. Wellness is defined as the process of adopting patterns of behavior that lead to better health and greater life satisfaction, encompassing several dimensions: physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, interpersonal or social, environmental, and, in some models, occupational. Very often, people want to have good health as a means to achieving wellness, an optimum quality of life. Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) describes three stages of the physiological response to stress: alarm, resistance, exhaustion. Stress can decrease immune function, increase the heart rate and blood pressure, cause gastrointestinal problems, and contribute to mental disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. Mediators, including personality traits, self-perceptions and expectations, and resilience and hardiness, affect how the body responds to stress. Common stressors are life events, both bad and good, daily hassles at school and work, money problems, family and interpersonal problems, time pressures, anger, trauma, and societal pressures.
Healthy alternatives to self-medicating with alcohol, drugs, and tobacco are reducing stress through time management, social support, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, and practicing relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing, progressive relaxation, visualization, mindfulness-based meditation, yoga, t'ai chi, biofeedback, and affirmations.
According to the similarity theory, we fall in love with people who are similar to us in important ways. According to the social exchange theory, we fall in love with people who can fulfill emotional and other needs, such as security, money, and status. The early stage of a love relationship is romantic, idealistic, and passionate. Physiological changes, such as increased dopamine, gradually decrease. Sometimes intimacy increases as passion lessens; for other couples, the end of passion is the end of the relationship. According to Sternberg's love triangle, different kinds of love have different combinations of intimacy, passion, and commitment. The most common type of committed relationship is marriage. Research has found that successful marriages are based on positive reasons for getting married and realistic, shared expectations of marriage. Gay and lesbian couples have the options of domestic partnership, civil union, and, in some states, marriage. Cohabitation is an option for couples; for two thirds, it leads to marriage. Research findings have been varied about the effect of cohabitation on the relationship. About 40 to 50 percent of first marriages now end in divorce, and many single-parent families struggle with poverty. Many people who remarry bring their children to the new relationship, creating a blended family. A growing number of young adults are postponing marriage, and older adults are choosing to remain single. Cohesion, flexibility, and communication are key to maintaining any kind of partnership or family. Insomnia, or difficulty falling or staying asleep, is experienced by 30 to 40 percent of adults. Sleep apnea, or periods during sleep when breathing stops, is almost as common, but men are more at risk for it than women. About 1 to 15 percent of the population sleepwalk. Nighttime eating disorders are somewhat less common; if the person is unaware that he or she is eating, it is a sleep disorder, but if the person wakes up frequently during the night to eat, it is an eating disorder. Sleep problems can be diagnosed with sleep latency tests, sleep diaries, or evaluation in a sleep lab. The key to a good night's sleep is good sleep habits, such as a regular sleep schedule, a sleep-friendly environment, avoiding stimulants late in the day, exercising regularly, managing stress, not eating heavy meals close to bedtime, turning off electronics 2 hours before you plan to go to sleep, and being considerate of your sleep partner. Sleep aids, whether prescription, over the counter, or alternative, can help with situational sleep problems but shouldn't be used long term. Alternative approaches to sleep include herbal products, dietary supplements, and aromatherapy. Valerian and hops are examples of herbal products. Melatonin is a common but controversial dietary supplement to promote sleep. Jasmine and lavender are oils that induce sleep by reducing stress, relaxing muscles, and enhancing mood. Relaxation drinks are a relatively new product containing herbal products or dietary supplements. Americans overall do not eat a very healthy diet compared to what is recommended, and overweight and obesity are significant problems. The American diet tends to include too many calories; too much sugar, salt, and fat; and too few vegetables, fruits, and whole foods. Current concerns include the overconsumption of soft drinks, high-sodium diets, food allergies and intolerances, overuse of energy bars and energy drinks, unsubstantiated claims about probiotics, the prevalence of fast food, and the existence of food deserts. The components of health-related fitness are cardiorespiratory fitness, musculoskeletal fitness (muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility) and body composition. When you are designing an exercise program, consider the FITT dimensions of your sessions: frequency, intensity, time, and type. Cardio fitness, the center of any fitness program, is developed by activities that use the large muscles of the body in continuous movement. Muscular strength and endurance are developed by weight, or resistance, training. To gain muscle tissue, exercise is preferable to drugs and dietary supplements. Flexibility is developed by stretching. Body composition can be controlled by the amount of physical activity you engage in. Drugs are classified as CNS stimulants (e.g., cocaine, methamphetamine), CNS depressants (barbiturates, benzodiazepines), opioids (heroin, oxycodone), hallucinogens (LSD), inhalants (paint thinner, glue), and cannabinoids (marijuana). 2nd EditionMcGraw-Hill Education
2nd EditionKatherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
1st EditionRichard A. Kasschau
11th EditionC. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers